2014, Volume 8, Issue 1 (Volume 8, Issue 1, January-December 2014)

Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya
Douglas Nyambane Anyona, Gabriel Owino Dida, Paul Otieno Abuom, Jackson Odhiambo Onyuka, Ally-Said Matano, Canisius Kabungo Kanangire, Ayub Victor Opiyo Ofulla

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Abstract

Background: A number of factors impact negatively on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya.
Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique.
Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02). Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001) and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036).
However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001) but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect.
Conclusions: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

Keywords: coliform bacteria, domestic waste, Mara River, pollution, urban center

Citation: Anyona DN, Dida GO, Abuom PO, Onyuka JO, Matano A, Kanangire CK, et al. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya. Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.l

In silico characterization and comparative analysis of Bacillus subtilis GntR type LutR transcription factor
Murat Kemal Avci, Cigdem Yamaner, Muavviz Ayvaz, Ayten Yazgan-Karatas

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Abstract

Background: The GntR-type transcriptional factor LutR (formerly YvfI) behaves as a transition state regulator, governing adaptations of Bacillus subtilis cells to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.
Material and Methods: In this study, we evaluated a total of 30 LutR proteins from different bacterial species that were available in the NCBI database. By performing the physicochemical analyses, domain analysis, and phylogenetic tree construction, we identified some similarities and differences among these 30 LutR proteins. Furthermore, only the primer structure of Bacillus subtilis 168 LutR was compared with the sequences and 3D conformational situations of the well-known
HTH-type transcriptional factors FadR (PDB ID: 1 HW1,1 HW2,1 HT9) and YvoA (PDB ID: 2WV0) using PyMOL.
Results: These analyses revealed that the critical residues for DNA-recognition and DNA-binding of LutR are highly conserved and conformationally correspond to the same positions as those in FadR and YvoA. The sequence (15-SVQALAESF-23) of the second helix in LutR seems to be important for DNA-binding, while the Q17-R27-Q47 residues might be critical for DNA recognition. Here, we provide a detailed description of the similarities and differences between B. subtilis LutR and both the other LutR proteins from different bacterial species and other HTH-type transcriptional factors.
Conclusions: These results provide a scientific groundworkbase and can be used for advanced in silico analysis, homology modelling, and in vitro studies, including DNA-protein interaction analysis, such as ChIP and EMSA methods.

Keywords: bacillus subtilis, GntR family, HTH-type transcriptional factors, LutR, Yvfl

Citation: Avci MK, Yamaner C, Ayvaz M, Yazgan-Karatas A. In silico characterization and comparative analysis of Bacillus subtilis GntR type LutR transcription factor. Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):12-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.2

Evaluation of cold shock-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the house fly Musca domestica
Nidhi Mishra, Raghav Ram Tewari

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Abstract

Background: Low temperature affects the survival, growth and development of invertebrates, especially insects, based on the severity of cold and the duration of exposure. Although the effects of cold shock or direct chilling were previously analysed in terms of development patterns and defects, morphological changes, cold hardiness, cryopreservation and diapause in insects, very little information is available regarding the effects of cold shock at the chromosomal level.
Material and Methods: Late third instar larvae of the house fly Musca domestica were exposed to low temperatures (10, 4, 0 and -5°C) for different durations, in order to assess genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the present study. The chromosomal aberration assay and micronucleus test were used as genotoxic end points. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the mitotic index and the extent of tissue damage was observed using the Trypan blue staining method.
Results: A significant (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.001) increase in chromosome aberrations and micronucleus frequency was observed in all of the exposed groups compared to the control. The mitotic index showed a dose-dependent increase; however, it was lower in comparison to the control. The developmental patterns in exposed larvae exhibited an increase in larval mortality and a delay in adult emergence. Extensive tissue damage was observed at -5°C by Trypan blue staining.
Conclusions: The present work suggests that cold shock induces chromosome aberrations and cytotoxicity and affects the developmental pattern in house fly, M. domestica.

Keywords: chromosome aberration, micronucleus, mitosis, Musca domestica, tissue damage

Citation: Mishra N, Tewari RR. Evaluation of cold shock-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the house fly Musca domestica. Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):29-37. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.3

Embryonic and larval development of the suckermouth sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys partialis from Marikina River, Philippines
Joycelyn Cagatin Jumawan, Annabelle Aliga Herrera, Benjamin Vallejojr

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Abstract

Background: There is little information about the early development of this invasive fish species in order to understand its early life history and developmental strategies towards invasion.
Material and Methods: Female Pterygoplichthys pardalis were induced to spawn using human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) so as to study the developmental stages from fertilization until yolk resorption.
Results: The females subjected to a single dose of HCG responded positively to treatment (97%) with higher fertilization success (88%) compared to the untreated females (21%). Nonetheless, the HCG-induced fertilized eggs had a low hatching success (49%), while from the free-living embryos successfully hatched, a high number (90%) survived to become juveniles. Embryonic development in P. pardalis was completed 168 h and 30 min after fertilization, with the total yolk resorption completed on the 8t h day post hatching, during which the suckermouth gradually shifted from rostral to ventral position to commence the loricariid algae-scraping feeding mode.
Conclusions: Pterygoplichthys pardalis does not undergo a true larval metamorphosis between the free-living embryo and the juvenile stage and a definitive adult phenotype is developed directly. These results provided basic, yet essential information on the early developmental features of this invasive species whose spawning and early developmental strategies were difficult to observe in the field. Implications of some ontogenetic features in this species with regards to invasion are also discussed.

Keywords: development, embryogenesis, invasion, larvae, morphology, Pterygoplichthys pardalis

Citation: Jumawan JC, Herrera AA, Vallejojr B. Embryonic and larval development of the suckermouth sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys partialis from Marikina River, Philippines. Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):38-50. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.4

Identification and biotechnological potential of psychrotrophic marine isolates
Swanandi Pote, Yamini Chaudhary, Shruti Upadhayay, Vidya Tale, Sandeep Walujkar, Yogesh Shouche, Rama Bhadekar

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Abstract

Background: Importance of microbial metabolites in food, detergent, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries has now been widely established. To fulfill the requirement of these industries, psychrophilic/psychrotrophic marine microbes are being explored. These microbes help in the production of metabolites that are active and stable at extreme physiological conditions. In correlation with this scenario, the present study reports identification of 14 bacterial isolates (BRI 32- BRI 45) from marine water samples (out of which 4 are Antarctic) with emphasis on their biotechnologically important characters.
Material and Methods: Bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Growth of the isolates under different physiological conditions of temperature (10°C to 45°C), pH (3-10) and concentration of NaCI (0-20%) was studied. Further, the isolates were examined for their ability to produce i) polyunsaturated fatty acids, ii) industrially important enzymes and their potential to produce bio-surfactant.
Results: 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to Halomonas, Brevibacillus, Kocuria and Oceanobacillus genera. Our results indicated that the isolates could grow over a wide range of physiological conditions of pH (3-10), temperature (10-45°C) and NaCI concentration. Eight out of 14 isolates showed the presence of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. BRI 34 was found to produce significant amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (39.66%). Most of the isolates exhibited the ability to produce 3 or 4 enzymes. Only BRI 35 showed potential for biosurfactant production.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest potential of these isolates for biotechnological applications.

Keywords: 16S rRNA, Antarctica, cold oceanic waters, fatty acids

Citation: Pote S, Chaudhary Y, Upadhayay S, Tale V, Walujkar S, Shouche Y, et al. Identification and biotechnological potential of psychrotrophic marine isolates. Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):51-60. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.5

Observation of embryonic and early larval development of striped gourami, Trichogaster fasciata (Perciformes: Osphronemidae)
M. Shafaet Hossen, A.H.M. Mohsinul Reza, Sharmin Ferdewsi Rakhi, M. Mokhlasur Rahman, Mohammad Azharul Alam, Zakir Hossain

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Abstract

Background: The striped gourami, Trichogaster fasciata, is depleted due to loss of habitat and overfishing. The striped gourami has virtually disappeared from the areas where it was abundant, such as rivers, canals, haor, baor and beels. T. fasciata is nutritive, economically and ecologically very valuable. It is vital to assess its early developmental biology for fry production and suitable rearing technique to repopulate this species in the freshwater bodies.
Material and Methods: Brood T. fasciata was collected from local wild source. The brood T. fasciata was reared with polyunsaturated fatty acids supplemented diet for 3 months. T. fasciata was bred spontaneously. Fertilized eggs of T. fasciata were incubated in 2 mini circular bowl hatcheries (50 L capacity) with provision of continuous water supply and the embryonic and larval stages were recorded using a binocular microscope and a digital camera-equipped microscope.
Results: The fertilized eggs were spherical, transparent, buoyant, non adhesives and brownish in colour, with an average diameter of 0.30-0.60 mm. First cleavage occurred within 25-30 min of postfertilization at 26±1°C. Hatching started at 22 h post-fertilization and completed within 24 h at the same temperature range. New hatchlings were 2.0-2.5 mm long devoid of mouth and pigmentation and started feeding within 48-60 h post-hatching. Depletion of the yolk-sac and development of the gills occurred on the second day of hatching.
Conclusions: Therefore, the findings of the present study may help establishing the large scale seed production technique of T. fasciata.

Keywords: embryonic development, larval development, morphological characteristics, Trichogaster fasciata

Citation: Hossen MS, Reza AM, Rakhi SF, Rahman MM, Alam MA, Hossain Z. Observation of embryonic and early larval development of striped gourami, Trichogaster fasciata (Perciformes: Osphronemidae). Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):61-70. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.6

Source identification and entry pathways of banned antibiotics nitrofuran and chloramphenicol in shrimp value chain of Bangladesh
M. Jakiul Islam, Afroza Akter Liza, A.H.M. Mohsinul Reza, M. Shaheed Reza, Mohammed Nurul Absar Khan, Md. Kamal

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Abstract

Background: Contamination with residues of banned carcinogenic antibiotic drugs like nitrofuran metabolites and chloramphenicol (CAP) in frozen shrimp products has become a major concern of food safety for exporting countries. In the present study an approach was taken to identify the
sources of such harmful antibiotics in the shrimp value chain of Bangladesh, one of the major shrimp countries.
Material and Methods: Inputs of farms and hatchery systems including feed, feed additives, feed ingredients and therapeutic agents were thought to be the sources of contagion. Fish and shrimp feed, feed ingredients, sediment and water samples of shrimp hatcheries and farms were, therefore, analyzed for 3-Amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), 3-Amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 1-Amino-hydantoin (AHD), Semicarbazide (SEM) and chloramphenicol (CAP) to identify their source and entry pathways. About 500 g of each 160 feed and feed ingredients were collected in pyrogens free polyethylene sealed bag and transported to Fish Inspection and Quality Control (FIQC) laboratory, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Whereas 500 mL of each 250 soils and water sample were collected from hatcheries. Sample preparation and residual metabolites analysis were conducted using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical assays on an Waters Alliance 2695 series HPLC and Quattro Micro, API mass spectrometer instrumentation (Waters Corporation, USA).
Results: Among the analyzed 160 feed samples, 38 were found contaminated with CAP and/or nitrofuran metabolites (AMOZ, AOZ, A H D and SEM), where 11,10, 8, and 9 samples were for shrimp feed, fish feed, poultry feed and feed ingredients. Imported feed ingredients contained with protein concentrates of improper quality were found contaminate with higher level of SEM. Although hatcheries were found free from contamination, whereas sediment and water samples of many shrimp farms were found contaminated with high levels of SEM and CAP.
Conclusions: It could be narrated that antibiotic contamination of shrimp products were the use of antibiotic contaminated feed and feed ingredients in the farms; use of poultry litter to fertilize ponds during mixed culture, because poultry were fed with antibiotic medicated feed from zero day
of feeding and indiscriminate use of insecticides and pesticides at nearby agricultural farms.

Keywords: Bangladesh, chloramphenicol, feed ingredients, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, metabolites, shrimp value chain

Citation: Islam MJ, Liza AA, Reza AM, Reza MS, Khan MNA, Kamal M. Source identification and entry pathways of banned antibiotics nitrofuran and chloramphenicol in shrimp value chain of Bangladesh. Eurasia J Biosci. 2014;8(1):71-83. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2014.8.0.7