2013, Volume 7, Issue 1 (Volume 7, Issue 1, January-December 2013)

Comparative studies on potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains
Gauri Dixit, Deepti Samarth, Vidya Tale, Rama Bhadekar

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Abstract

Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms present in food and dietary supplements that beneficially affect the individual by improving the intestinal microbial balance properties. Their market value and biological potential is enormous because of their health-promoting properties. Therefore, comparative studies on probiotic potential of three selected strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were carried out during this work.
Method: The selected strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIM 2660, NCIM 2903 and NCIM 2285) were assessed for tolerance to pH (pH 2.5) and oxgall (0.3%), adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antimicrobial properties against test microorganisms and susceptibility to antibiotics.
Results: The distinguished characteristics of strain NCIM 2903 were high acid tolerance, antagonistic activity against all test micro-organisms and adhesion to Caco-2 cells (225±33 cells adhering to 100 Caco-2 cells). Strain NCIM 2285 exhibited bile tolerance and inability to grow in
presence of five of the antibiotics used. Strain NCIM 2285 indicated moderate adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The strain NCIM 2660 was unable to grow in presence of any of the twelve antibiotics. In contrast, control plates without discs of antibiotics exhibited confluent growth. It was a desirable feature. However, NCIM 2660 exhibited poor adhesive property. The optimum temperature of growth for all three strains was found to be 37ºC.
Conclusions: Significant differences in the probiotic characteristics of the three strains were recorded. In the cumulative assessment, strain NCIM 2903 could be regarded as the potential probiotic contender. These studies will help in selecting the probiotic micro organisms in a more rational manner for further applications.

Keywords: acid and bile tolerance, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell adhesion, lactic acid bacteria

Citation: Dixit G, Samarth D, Tale V, Bhadekar R. Comparative studies on potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.1

Phytosociological analysis of a traditionally managed sacred grove in transitional ecosystem of eastern lateritic part of India
Sumit Manna, Tushar Kanti Ghara, Debal Ray, Anirban Roy

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Abstract

Background: Traditionally managed sacred groves in the lateritic parts of eastern India are a common phenomenon. Groves located in the transitional ecosystem are characteristically rich in biodiversity and are found to be showcasing local refuges. Besides the cultural and aesthetic needs of mankind, these ancient forest remnants are the center of attraction to the researchers for their immense veritable gene pool thriving on sacred belief. Present study highlights the phytosociological characteristics along with the way of traditional management of a sacred grove.
Method: Traditional management practices were observed from the local community. Plants were identified following standard literature. Nature of relationship between different climbers and lianas with the major tree species of the grove was studied through cluster analysis, based on percentage cover data of each of the major climbers and lianas on the host trees.
Results: Syzygium cumini, Shorea robusta and Terminalia arjuna contributed most to the architecture built up of the grove. Out of 12 major species of climbers and lianas, Derris scandens showed its maximum abundance in terms of canopy coverage throughout the grove followed by Tinospora cordifolia and Gouania tiliaefolia. Certain degree of positive correlation was observed between different climbers and lianas with the mean height and mean diameter at breast height of the major tree species.
Conclusions: High species richness, confinement of the species and less undergrowth are the key characteristics of a sacred grove in transitional ecosystem. Opportunistic and aggressive nature of spreading have rendered Derris scandens, Tinospora cordifolia and Gouania tiliaefolia fittest in these highly overlapping niches of the grove. Adaptive management involving the local folk may help the Government in formulating the conservation strategies especially in non forest areas.

Keywords: architecture, host preference, phytosociological analysis, sacred grove, traditional management

Citation: Manna S, Ghara TK, Ray D, Roy A. Phytosociological analysis of a traditionally managed sacred grove in transitional ecosystem of eastern lateritic part of India. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):10-20. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.2

Effect of NaCI priming on seed germination of four coriander cultivars {Coriandrum sativum)
Mariem Ben Fredj, Kaouther Zhani, Cherif Hannachi, Tijani Mehwachi

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Abstract

Background: Optimum benefits of seed priming on four cultivars of coriander {Coriandrum sativum) having different origin (Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and Syria) were studied under salinity stress.
Method: Seeds of coriander were primed with NaCI at five levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g L1 ) for three different times (12, 24 and 36 h) at 25°C. Then primed (P) and non-primed (NP) seeds were irrigated with five different saline solutions consisting of 0 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 g L1 NaCI.
Results: The results showed that the best germination percentage was obtained by applying NaCI at 4 g L1 for 12 h. Also, NaCI priming increased germination percentage compared with non-primed seeds. Overall increased NaCI level led to the reductions in the traits under study but these reductions were higher for non-primed compared to primed seeds. An Egyptian cultivar seemed to be the most sensitive.
Conclusions: The present study revealed that under salinity seed priming with NaCI could be used as a method to improve seed performance in coriander. However, further studies are needed to investigate the effects of NaCI priming on later growth and development of this crop.

Keywords: coriandrum sativum, cultivars, germination, NaCI priming, salinity

Citation: Fredj MB, Zhani K, Hannachi C, Mehwachi T. Effect of NaCI priming on seed germination of four coriander cultivars {Coriandrum sativum). Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):21-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.3

Screening of xylanase activity of Streptomyces albidoflavus PSM-3n isolated from Uttarakhand
Pushpendra Sharma, Vijay Kumar, Bindu Naik, Gajraj Singh Bisht

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Abstract

Background: Awareness towards the environmental pollution had made the evolution of green technology by which enzymes got special attention in industries. The enzymes replaced chemical catalysts in manufacturing various chemicals, agricultural and pharmaceutical products.
Material and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated and screened for their ability to produce xylanase. For the most promising isolate, selection of media, effect of pH, temperature, metal ions, and detergents on enzyme production and activity was studied.
Results: Out of 29 isolates, 22 isolates showed xylanase activity. Out of 22 xylanase producing isolate, 05 isolates were selected for secondary screening on the basis of their clear zone size. The most promising isolate PSM-3n was identified as Streptomyces albidoflavus. It produces maximum enzyme (xylanase) in media Horikoshi and Ikura having carbon and nitrogen sources as oat meal and urea respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme production was 4.0 and 45ºC respectively. The enzyme activity was found maximum at temperature 50ºC and enhanced in the presence of Fe3+ ions. There was a reduction in the enzyme activity in the presence of detergents like SDS, tween-20 and tween-80. The enzyme was fairly stable at 50°C for 1 h.
Conclusions: The enzyme produced by the isolate PSM-3n is fairly heat stable and highly acid stable. The activity of the enzyme was increased in presence of Fe3+ ions while decreased in presence of SDS. Therefore, further studies are required for purification of xylanase for its application potential in pulp bioleaching processes and in the functional food industry.

Keywords: agro-industrial end products, soil, Streptomyces sp., xylanase activity

Citation: Sharma P, Kumar V, Naik B, Bisht GS. Screening of xylanase activity of Streptomyces albidoflavus PSM-3n isolated from Uttarakhand. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):30-40. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.4

Chromosomal stickiness and related meiotic irregularities in Inula racemosa - a critically endangered medicinal herb of North Western Himalayas
Peerzada Arshid Shabir, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo, Aijaz Ahmad Wani

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Abstract

Background: The species Inula racemosa, a rare species of Kashmir Himalaya, has been included in the list of endangered species of India. In the present study, we aimed to make a more formal quantitative analysis of the fertility of /. racemosa, wild as well as transplanted populations, using a meiotic behaviour analysis and pollen viability test.
Material and Methods: Inflorescences atan ideal stage for meiotic study were collected and fixed in acetic ethanol (1:3) for 24 h and stored in 70% alcohol under refrigeration at 4 °C until use. For slide preparation the anthers were squashed in 2% acetocarmine.
Results: The present study revealed a peculiar chromosomal stickiness and formation of interbivalent chromatin connections among 2-4 bivalents. This stickiness of chromosomes along with interbivalent chromatin connections impairs the correct segregation of chromosomes, as a result single and double chromosomal bridges of different thickness, different number of lagging chromosomes, unequal separation, and multipolarity were continuously observed from anaphase I to microspore stage. Consequent to stickiness and associated meiotic abnormalities, the pollen grains varied greatly in size, individuals show 24.05-38.83% pollen sterility.
Conclusions: The presence of sticky chromosomes in /. racemosa impairs the correct segregation during anaphase which compromises the pollen viability of the species. Although the percentage of pollen sterility was not completely concord to the high rates of observed chromosomal abnormalities but the findings can aid in the successful conservation and management of the species.

Keywords: chromosomal stickiness, laggards. Inula racemosa, meiosis, microsporogenesis

Citation: Shabir PA, Nawchoo IA, Wani AA. Chromosomal stickiness and related meiotic irregularities in Inula racemosa - a critically endangered medicinal herb of North Western Himalayas. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):41-6. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.5

Does excess boron affect the malondialdehyde levels of potato cultivars?
Muawiz Ayvaz, Murat Kemal Avcı, Cigdem Yamaner, Mesut Koyuncu, Avni Güven, Kurt Fagerstedt

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Abstract

Background: Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a product of lipid peroxidation and a sign of oxidative stress in plants. Therefore, determining the responses of plants to a particular type of stress at a particular time will shed a light on clarifying the stress status of the plants. In this study, we report how the MDA levels in potato cultivars changed with toxic concentrations of boron, an essential plant micronutrient.
Material and Methods: Eight different potato {Solarium tuberosum) cultivars (cv. Konsul, cv. Morene, cv. Slaney, cv. Mona Lisa, cv. Jaerla, cv. Poroventa, cv. Yayla Kizi, and cv. Armada) were used as study material. Excess boron was applied for seven weeks in three concentrations (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mM) to plants that were grown from tubers. Plants were harvested and a malondialdehyde content analyses was carried out using leaf tissues.
Results: The MDA levels in cv. Mona Lisa and Yayla Kizi with excess boron steadily increased with increasing concentrations in all the groups, compared to the control group. In cv. Morene, the MDA decreased in the 0.5 mM boron application and increased in the 2.5 and 5 mM boron applications. In cv. Armada, cv. Slaney, cv. Konsul, and cv. Poroventa, the MDA levels fluctuated in the different groups of each cultivar. In cv. Jaerla, the MDA decreased in all groups with an increase in boron, compared to the control group.
Conclusions: The MDA levels with excess boron showed an increase, fluctuation, and decrease in each group of the cultivars, compared to the control group. Therefore, the MDA levels in potato plants with excess boron might not be a clear sign to determine the level of stress. This is the first report of MDA levels in eight different potato cultivars subjected to three different excess boron concentrations.

Keywords: boron toxicity, malondialdehyde. Solarium tuberosum, stress physiology

Citation: Ayvaz M, Avcı MK, Yamaner C, Koyuncu M, Güven A, Fagerstedt K. Does excess boron affect the malondialdehyde levels of potato cultivars?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):47-53. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.6

Comparison of soil the carbon and nitrogen contents of Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior in the Mersin-Gulnar region
Burcu Yesilbudak, Ahu Kutlay, Cengiz Darici

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Abstract

Background: Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm under the Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior at an altitude of 1300-1500 m from the Kullin site at Gulnar-Mersin and were compared for their pH, CaCOs, nitrogen (N) %, and carbon (C) % contents. Balanced soils in natural forest ecosystems are known to be very rich in carbon content which increases with latitude and altitude and that the C/N ratio varies greatly between the soils of different plant species. We determined the values of the C/N rates in Q. cerris and F. excelsior soils of the Gulnar Gezende forest for the first time at this altitude.
Material and Methods: A pH meter and Scheibler calcimeter were used to determine the soil pH and lime contents respectively. Percentage C was determined using the Anne method and the N% with the Kjeldahl method.
Results: There was no difference in the pH values and nitrogen percentage contents between the two soils. Q. cerris soil was found to have medium levels of CaCOs, while the level of CaCCh in F. excelsior soils was low. The C/N rates and carbon contents were higher in Q. cerris soil than F. excelsior soil (P<0.05).
Conclusions: The higher carbon content of Q. cerris soil can be explained by higher amounts of organic matter compared with F. excelsior, which might depend on factors such as microclimate and their specific characteristics.

Keywords: carbon, Fraxinus excelsior, nitrogen, Quercus cerris, soil

Citation: Yesilbudak B, Kutlay A, Darici C. Comparison of soil the carbon and nitrogen contents of Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior in the Mersin-Gulnar region. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):54-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.7

Genotoxic and antimicrobial studies of the leaves of Psidium guajava
Nwanneka Lauretta Ofodile, Ndubuisi Moses Chikere Nwakanma, Michael Mordi, Oluwakemi Ademolu, Isabella Ezimoke, Jokotade Owoso

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Abstract

Background: The guava, Psidium guajava is one of the most gregarious of fruit trees, of the Myrtaceae family. The leaf of P. guajava is a common herb used in the treatment of diarrhea in Nigeria and this has generated special interest in the probable antimicrobial and genotoxic effects of the leaf. However the mode of action of the leaf extracts has not been reported, hence the genotoxicity study.
Material and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava on Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated using agar-well method and also subjected to phytochemical screening and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy analysis. General toxicity and genotoxic effects of the aqueous leaf extracts (0.01 g/mL, 0.03 g/mL, 0.06 g/mL and 0.08 g/mL) of P. guajava on Allium cepa root tips were also investigated using aceto-orcein squash technique.
Results: Results showed that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of guava leaf inhibited the growth of the bacteria and fungi tested. The ethanolic extract showed stronger inhibition than the aqueous extract against the organisms. A total of forty one compounds were identified in guava leaves using GC-MS analysis and these substances were found to be essential oils. The cytological effects at low concentration included mainly c-mitosis, vagrant chromosomes, chromosome bridges, and binucleate cells with E C s o o f 0.02 g/mL.
Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the extracts of leaves of P. guajava could be partly due to alterations associated with the cell division as deduced from the results.

Keywords: antimicrobial, genotoxicity, guava microorganisms, mitotic index, Psidium guajava

Citation: Ofodile NL, Nwakanma NMC, Mordi M, Ademolu O, Ezimoke I, Owoso J. Genotoxic and antimicrobial studies of the leaves of Psidium guajava. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):60-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.8

Seed priming with chitosan improves the germination and growth performance of ajowan {Carum copticum) under salt stress
Batool Mahdavi, Asghar Rahimi

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Abstract

Background: Chitosan is a polysaccharide biopolymer derived from chitin. It not only stimulates growth and increases the crop yields but also alleviates the harmful effect of abiotic stress on plant growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan on germination and
growth of ajowan {Carum copticum) under salt stress. This study was conducted in a laboratory and greenhouse.
Material and Methods: In the first experiment seed germination of ajowan monitored under seed pre-treated by soaking in chitosan solutions of 0, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% for 3 h. In second experiment, seeds soaked in chitosan solutions (0 and 0.2%) and sown in pots at different salinity levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m).
Results: Results indicated that all of chitosan concentrations increased germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigour index, length and dry weight of hypocotyl and radicle compared to control although, 0.2% chitosan concentration was more effective than other treatments. Salinity caused a significant reduction in germination percentage, shoot length, root length, shoot and root dry weight and relative water content, while chitosan adjusted the salt toxicity.
Conclusions: It is concluded that chitosan would be able to stimulate germination and growth of ajowan. It is also resulted that soaking ajowan seeds with chitosan, may alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on the plant growth.

Keywords: carum copticum, chitosan, germination, growth, salinity

Citation: Mahdavi B, Rahimi A. Seed priming with chitosan improves the germination and growth performance of ajowan {Carum copticum) under salt stress. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):69-76. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.9

An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria
Anely Nedelcheva

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Abstract

Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19t h to the middle of the 20t h century.
Material and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19t h to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews.
Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae,
Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43) and fruits (38), followed by young shoots (9), seeds (7), roots (4), bulbs (4) and inflorescences (2). The largest group
is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumexpatientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae,
Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products), dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets.
Conclusions: Today's traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a good opportunity for ethnobotanical research into wild edible plants as there is much ethnographic data available, including food culture and botanical observations, as well as the possibility of field study in rural areas where wild food plants are traditionally used on a daily basis.

Keywords: Balkans, Bulgaria, edible greens, food groups, traditional knowledge

Citation: Nedelcheva A. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):77-94. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.10

Nitrogen mineralisation in some saline soils at Eastern Mediterranean coasts, Turkey
Nacide Kizildag, Husniye Aka Sagliker, Cengiz Darici

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Abstract

Background: Soil salinity is a significant problem in arid and semi-arid Mediterranean regions. In this study, the effects of salinity on nitrogen mineralisation of Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis soils from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts of Turkey were determined.
Material and Methods: Nitrogen mineralisation (NH4+ + NO3-) of all samples was determined by the Parnas-Wagner method over 42 days at 28°C and under constant moisture.
Results: NO3--N production (mg kg-1) of E. camaldulensis soil was significantly higher than P. pinaster and P. pinea on days 11 and 42 (P<0.05). Nitrogen mineralisation rate was also higher in E. camaldulensis soil when compared with the other two plants’ soil.
Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that nitrogen mineralisation of saline soils can be affected by the composition of different plants.

Keywords: Mediterranean coasts, microbial activity, nitrogen, salinity

Citation: Kizildag N, Sagliker HA, Darici C. Nitrogen mineralisation in some saline soils at Eastern Mediterranean coasts, Turkey. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):95-100. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.11

Effects of sucrose and polyethylene glycol on hypericins content in Hypericum adenotrichum
Omer Yamaner, Bengi Erdag

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Abstract

Background: Hypericum adenotrichum contain many biologically active compounds, some of which, especially hypericins (hypericin and pseudohypericin), have antidepressant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor properties. In this paper, we report the effects of osmotic stress on the production of hypericins in H. adenotrichum under in vitro conditions. Osmotic stress is an abiotic elicitor that can alter the physiological and biochemical properties of plants, as well as decrease or increase the
concentrations of secondary metabolites in plant tissues.
Material and Methods: Sucrose and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used to cause osmotic stress. Seedlings of H. adenotrichum were grown on a modified MS medium containing sucrose (15, 30, 45, and 60 g/L) or PEG (2.5, 10, and 15 g/L) for 15 and 30 days. Then, H. adenotrichum seedlings were extracted with methanol. These extracts were analysed by HPLC to investigate the changes in hypericins levels.
Results: Under osmotic stress conditions, the concentrations of hypericins changed in seedlings of H. adenotrichum. Treatment with 10 g/L PEG for 15 days increased production of hypericin (2.1-fold) and pseudohypericin (2.3-fold), but PEG treatment for 30 days affected less hypericins levels when compared to PEG treatment for 15 days. The amount that the hypericins increased was minimal and proportional with the amount of sucrose up to treatment with 45 g/L sucrose, and then the hypericins decreased at 60 g/L of sucrose treatment for 15 days. In sucrose treatment, the highest hypericins levels were observed in the control seedlings at 30 days treatment period of sucrose.
Conclusions: These results can be evaluated in experimental botany and in the technology of Hypericum species cultivation for pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: hypericum adenotrichum, hypericins, osmotic stress, polyethylene glycol, sucrose

Citation: Yamaner O, Erdag B. Effects of sucrose and polyethylene glycol on hypericins content in Hypericum adenotrichum. Eurasia J Biosci. 2013;7(1):101-0. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2013.7.0.12