2012, Volume 6, Issue 1 (Volume 6, Issue 1, January-December 2012)

Effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane lipids and antioxidant enzymes of Zygophyl I urn species
Amal Ahmed Morsy, Karima Hamid Ali Salama, Hend Ahmed Kamel, Mohamed Magdy Fahim Mansour

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Abstract

Background: Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth and development of plants. Industrial activities result in heavy metal pollution of large areas of land, which greatly affects natural vegetation. Understanding the mechanism of how plants combat heavy metals adverse effects is hence of great importance.
Materials and Methods: Two different localities were chosen; one locality was in the vicinity of gypsum factory and the other one was 25 km away from the factory. Two Zygophyllum species (Z. album and Z. coccineum) were naturally grown in the studied areas. The effects of soil heavy metal stress on shoot heavy metal concentrations, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and the root plasma membrane (PM) lipid composition were analyzed. Results: Heavy metal concentrations and Lipid peroxidation increased in the shoot of both species grown in the polluted area. The activities of ascorbate oxidase (ASO), guaiacal peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased whereas these of catalase (CAT) were decreased in both species under the polluted conditions. PM total lipids, phospholipids, glycolipids and sterols were decreased in Z. album and Z. coccineum as a result of the polluted soil. Heavy metal stress increased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and decreased phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phophatidylglycerol (PG), with no significant change in phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the root PM of both species. Phosphatidylserine (PS) decreased in the PM of Z. album whereas it increased in the PM of Z. coccineum under the pollution conditions. Heavy metal stress changed the composition and concentration of fatty acids of the root PM, resulting in increased sat/unsat ratio of both species.
Conclusion: the results suggest that efficient antioxidant machinery and favorable PM lipid homeostasis are important to enable Zygophyllum species to withstand the prevailing heavy metal stress.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, fatty acid, heavy metal, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane lipid, Zygophyllum sp

Citation: Morsy AA, Salama KHA, Kamel HA, Mansour MMF. Effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane lipids and antioxidant enzymes of Zygophyl I urn species. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.1

The vascular plants of Buca Faculty of Education Campus (Izmir): Contribution to educational practices
İlker Ugulu, Yunus Doğan, Teoman Kesercioglu

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Abstract

Background: Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially urbanization, have caused adverse effects on the natural ecosystems. As a result, green campuses have become rare places where the characteristics of the area flora can be observed. In this context, the aim of the present study is to identify the floral richness of the campus of the Buca Faculty of Education (BEF), an important floristic area within the city of Izmir, and to clarify how this richness is used in the educational processes.
Method: The study was carried out between the periods 2008-2010. Plants growing on the BEF Campus constitute the research material. Plants growing on the campus were examined, necessary samples were collected. After the determination of plants, how they were used in B.Sc, M.Sc. and Ph.D. classes was investigated. For this purpose, interviews were performed with seven teaching staff from the Buca Faculty of Education Department of Biology.
Results: A total of 108 plant taxa belonging to 52 families were identified in the campus area. Further study of the families showed that the family Rosaceae is represented by the highest number of taxa, fourteen, followed by Fabaceae represented by nine taxa. In addition, according to opinions of the academic staff, different ways of using such plants in training were identified and discussed.
Conclusion: A principal conclusion to be drawn is that a general programme in Applied Biology and Ethnobotany should be made available to all students. When the increase of plant usage for medicinal purposes in recent years is taken into consideration, field studies related especially to ethnobotany can be a very useful specialisation for M.Sc. and Ph.D. students. It would be beneficial for graduates in a variety of disciplines, including Botany, as well as Agriculture, Anthropology, Forestry, Medicine, Pharmacology, Sociology, and others.

Keywords: campus flora, education, urban habitat, vascular plant, Izmir

Citation: Ugulu İ, Doğan Y, Kesercioglu T. The vascular plants of Buca Faculty of Education Campus (Izmir): Contribution to educational practices. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):11-23. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.2

Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis
Sumit Manna, Anirban Roy, Tushar Kanti Ghara

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Abstract

Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly river sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem.
Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m). Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard) were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table.
Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Denis scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests helping in developing community in stressed environment.
Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

Keywords: association, brick kiln, community, mangrove

Citation: Manna S, Roy A, Ghara TK. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):24-31. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.3

Investigations on some of the important host plants of Kerria lacca with reference to phloem distance
Sandeep Kaushik, Anand Kumar Pushker, Suman Lakhanpaul, Kewal KrishanSharma, Rangnathan Ramani

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Abstract

Background: Kerria lacca, the Indian lac insect, is a phytophagous (sap-feeding) insect thriving on mostly woody dicotyledonous plants. Of more than 400 plant species known to be likely hosts for the lac insect, about 113 host species are found to be successfully infested by the lac insect in India. Architecture of the plant tissue might be a crucial factor for these sap feeders, because for successful establishment, the insect has to pierce the plant tissue to reach the feeding site, viz., the phloem or the xylem tissue.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-two diverse host plant taxa classified on the basis of lac yield and insect preference were considered. Anatomical and statistical studies were conducted using distance to the phloem from the stem periphery as a parameter.
Results: Statistical observations showed that host preference and lac yield is independent of phloem distance.
Conclusions: Other factors such as the contents of carbon, nitrogen, or certain secondary metabolites present in the host plant may be involved in lac insect-plant interaction, which warrant further investigation.

Keywords: anatomy, Kerria lacca, phytophagous, phloem distance

Citation: Kaushik S, Pushker AK, Lakhanpaul S, KrishanSharma K, Ramani R. Investigations on some of the important host plants of Kerria lacca with reference to phloem distance. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):32-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.4

Authentication of shankhpushpi by RAPD markers
Showkat Hussain Ganie, Prem Shankar Srivastava, Alka Narula, Zahid Ali, Maheshwar Prasad Sharma

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Abstract

Background: "Shankhpushpi", an important indigenous drug of Ayurveda, an ancient system of Indian medicine, improves memory power and intellect. It is used in many Ayurvedic formulations, either singly or in combination with other herbs, meant for sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations and anxiety. At least three different plant species viz., Clitoria ternatea, Convolvulus pluricaulis and Evolvulus alsinoides are used as the source of this drug in the different parts of the country. Because of increased demand and high price, shankhpushpi is often adulterated in the trade by other related species. Therefore, a reliable authentication method is needed to facilitate differentiation/identification of the genuine material from its adulterants. The present study was aimed at developing RAPD-based markers for identification of C. pluricaulis, E. alsinoides and C. ternatea, and analyzing the market samples of the drug to ascertain their authenticity.
Materials and Methods: Fresh samples of source plants of shankhpushpi were collected from Ghaziabad and Delhi. The market samples were procured from the crude-drug markets of different geographical regions of India. The amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed for characterization of genuine and market samples. Twenty-five 11 -mer oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify the DNA isolated.
Results: Out of 25 primers, only four (OPN-03, OPN-04, OPN-05 and OPN-06) yielded amplification products that produced clear and reproducible bands, which were used to characterize the market samples. RAPD profile of some market samples did not match with the authentic samples,
indicating that these samples were either adulterated or spurious.
Conclusions: The RAPD markers developed in this study may provide guidance for the authentication of plant materials traded as shankhpushpi.

Keywords: authentic sample, market sample, molecular marker, RAPD, shankhpushpi

Citation: Ganie SH, Srivastava PS, Narula A, Ali Z, Sharma MP. Authentication of shankhpushpi by RAPD markers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):39-46. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.5

Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper {Capsicum frutescens)
Kaouther Zhani, Mohamed Aymen Elouer, Hassan Aloui, Cherif Hannachi

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Abstract

B a c k g r o u n d : Salinity affects g e r m i n a t i o n a n d s e e d l i n g g r o w t h a n d yield of several crop species, s u c h as pepper. That is w h y this study w a s carried to evaluate the effects of NaCI on seed g e r m i n a t i o n , seedling g r o w t h and ionic balance of three T u n i s i a n chili pepper {Capsicum frutescens) cv: T e b o u r b a , Korba a n d A w l a d Haffouz.
M a t e r i a l s a n d M e t h o d s : The percentage of g e r m i n a t i o n , the g r o w t h and the mineral contents were m e a s u r e d in the three T u n i s i a n chili pepper cv w a t e r e d with water c o n t a i n i n g 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 g L1 NaCI.
R e s u l t s : Results s h o w e d that different salinity stress levels had significant effect on g e r m i n a t i on percentage and germination time. In pot experiment, increasing NaCI concentration, for all cv, induced a significant d e c r e a s e on plant height, root length, leaves n u m b e r , leaf area a n d chlorophyll a m o u n t . T h e f r e s h a n d d r y w e i g h t s are a l s o affected. I n addition, salinity increased N a + a n d CI" levels but d e c r e a s e d K+ level in roots a n d s h o o t s .
C o n c l u s i o n s : A w l a d Haffouz c v h a d the highest K 7 N a + ratio c o m p a r e d t o cv Korba a n d T e b o u r ba and i t h a s s h o w e d the best r e s p o n s e u n d e r salt s t r e s s d u r i n g g e r m i n a t i o n a n d g r o w t h stage w h i ch lets it to be the most tolerant cv.

Keywords: capsicum frutescens, g e r m i n a t i o n , mineral nutrition, salinity, shoot

Citation: Zhani K, Elouer MA, Aloui H, Hannachi C. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper {Capsicum frutescens). Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):47-59. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.6

Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view
Anely Nedelcheva

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Abstract

Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003-2010) from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data.
Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc.
Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of
development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.

Keywords: ethnobotany, herbal market, medicinal plant, plant-based product

Citation: Nedelcheva A. Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):60-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.7

Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) detected by RAPDs
Houshang Nosrati, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi, Marziyeh Mazinani, Ahmad Razban Haghighi

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Abstract

Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation.
Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae) using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran). Withinpopulation genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei's and Shannon's diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei's distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3). Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin.
Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei's diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in smallsized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809) was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630) (N= 7, P<0.03). Partitioning total genetic variation showed that genetic differentiation among populations (32.83%) was significantly lower than that of within populations (67.17%). The UPGMA dendrogram grouped populations from different geographical regions in the same clusters indicating a lack of correlation between genetic and geographical distances (N= 21, P>0.674, Pearson correlation test).
Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and
suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

Keywords: capparis spinosa, conservation action, fragmented population, genetic diversity, smallsized population

Citation: Nosrati H, Feizi MAH, Mazinani M, Haghighi AR. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) detected by RAPDs. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):70-5. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.8

Seed priming to improve germination and seedling growth of safflower {Carthamus tinctorius) under salt stress
Mohamed Aymen Elouaer, Cherif Hannachi

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Abstract

Background: Salinity affect germination and seedling growth of several crop species, many techniques are used to improve tolerance and development of plants. Priming is an effective technique that improves germination of several vegetables crop under saline condition. That's why, this experiment was carried to study the effect of seed priming with 5 g/L NaCI and KCI on germination and seedlings growth of safflower {Carthamus tinctorius) exposed to five levels of salinity (0, 5,10,15 and 20 g/L).
Materials and Methods: Safflower seeds were soaked in solutions of NaCI (5 g/L for 12 h) and KCI (5 g/L for 24 h) at 20°C. Primed and non primed seeds were put to germinate in petri dishes and irrigated with saline solutions of five concentrations of NaCI (0, 5,10,15 and 20 g/L).
Results: NaCI and KCI priming have improved germination parameters (germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and coefficient of velocity) and growth parameters (radicle and seedling length, seedling fresh and dry weight and Vigour Index) of safflower under saline condition.
Conclusions: The present study revealed that, under salt stress, NaCI and KCI priming could be used as a method to improve safflower seed germination. However, further studies are needed to highlight effects of NaCI and KCI seed priming on future growth and development of the culture.

Keywords: carthamus tinctorius, germination, priming, salinity, seedling growth

Citation: Elouaer MA, Hannachi C. Seed priming to improve germination and seedling growth of safflower {Carthamus tinctorius) under salt stress. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):76-84. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.9

PCR-compatible genomic DNA isolation from different tissues of rice (Oryza sativa) for SSR fingerprinting
Rajib Roychowdhury, Joydip Karmakar, Narottam Dey

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Abstract

Background: In the genomic era, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based DNA marker analysis is widely used for several crop plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa), for several improvemental aspects. Such study requires a fast, inexpensive, and suitable DNA isolation protocol having several overall advantages. The aim of this work was to standardize a DNA isolation protocol for rice which should be simple, cost-effective, high throughput, PCR compatible, and needs a small amount of plant tissues without using liquid nitrogen.
Materials and Methods: To fulfill such a desired goal, genomic DNA was isolated from different tissues (seedling, leaf, root, grain, kernel, straw, and embryogenic callus) of the rice plant following a modified protocol. The isolated DNA was subjected to PCR amplification with a reported trait
linked rice-microsatellite (RM) marker.
Results: The quality and quantity of the isolated genomic DNA from this modified protocol proved to be comparable with the other standardized protocols. The microsatellite based DNA fingerprint shows reproducible bands from different isolated DNA tissue sources.
Conclusions: This mini prep cost-effective protocol was standardized with few milligrams of fresh and dried tissues, it does not require liquid nitrogen, can handle large number of samples in a working day per worker, and be efficiently applied to rice. The protocol has now also been applied in other plants like wheat and mungbean yielding about 0.55 μg of high molecular weight DNA from 100 mg of plant material with negligible RNA contamination.

Keywords: genomic DNA, molecular marker, Oryza sativa, polymerase chain reaction, rice microsatellite

Citation: Roychowdhury R, Karmakar J, Dey N. PCR-compatible genomic DNA isolation from different tissues of rice (Oryza sativa) for SSR fingerprinting. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):85-90. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.10

Phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of Prangos ferulaceae, with antioxidant activity
Seyed Mehdi Razavi

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Abstract

Background: Prangos ferulaceae (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran where it is used as a medicinal plant. In folk medicine, extracts of the roots and fruits of the plant have been used for the treatment of digestive disorders, healing scars, and to stop bleeding. In the present work, we report the presence of some phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of the plant.
Materials and Methods: The air-dried powder of Prangos ferulaceae leaves were Soxhlet extracted, successively, with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. A portion of concentrated residue of methanol extract was fractionated with an SPE-C18 cartridge using different mixtures of methanolwater. The 40% methanol fraction was analyzed by preparative HPLC using a methanol and water gradient to afford 4 compounds.
Results: The purified compounds using preparative HPLC were: a glucosilated coumarin, celereoside and three flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucorhamnoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by UV, IR, 1D, and 2 D NMR spectral data. Quercetin glucoside and isorhamnetin glucoside exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the DPPH test with an RC50 value of 36.2 and 64.4 μg/mL respectively.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that the P. ferulaceae aerial parts contain antioxidant flavonoids and furanocoumarins and that the plants bioactivities and medicinal potential might be attributed to presence of these compounds.

Keywords:

Citation: Razavi SM. Phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of Prangos ferulaceae, with antioxidant activity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):91-6. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.11

Classification and evaluation of some endemic plants from Turkey using Grime's CSR strategies
Cengiz Yıldırım, Neslihan Karavin, Arzu Cansaran

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Abstract

Background: Functional traits play important roles in plant growth and survival. According to functional traits, there are several classification types for plants such as adaptive and demographic strategies.
Materials and Methods: In this study, eight endemic taxa were collected from the Amasya Kirklar Mountain in Turkey and were classified and evaluated by Grime's CSR (Competitive, Stress tolerant, Ruderal) strategy scheme.
Results: These plants are in the LR(lc) (Lower risk/least concern) red list category and they are hemicryptophytes according to Raunkiaer's life forms. The CSR strategies of Asyneuma limonifolium subsp. pestalozzae, Digitalis lamarckii, and Paracaryum ancyritanum were CR, Linaria corifolia and Scutellaria salviifolia were CR/CSR, Phlomis armeniaca was C/CR, and Sideritis dichotoma andJurinea pontica were SC.
Conclusions: CR, CR/CSR, and C/CR plants are resistant to competition and disturbance such as grazing, trampling, mowing, soil erosion, and fire, whereas, SC are resistant to competition and stress, for example drought.

Keywords: CSR, endemic, functional trait. Grime, plant strategy

Citation: Yıldırım C, Karavin N, Cansaran A. Classification and evaluation of some endemic plants from Turkey using Grime's CSR strategies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):97-104. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.12

Development of an efficient callus production protocol for Amsonia orientalis: A critically endangered medicinal plant
Arda Acemi, Fazil Özen, Ruhiye Kiran

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Abstract

Background: The plant blue star, rich in cardioactive and anti-cancer glycosides and glycoalkaloids and also used as an ornamental plant, is evaluated as "critically endangered" since it is nearly extinct in nature. In the present study, we describe a rapid and efficient callus production protocol for further studies that can be conducted on Amsonia orientalis such as secondary metabolite production and in vitro propagation.
Materials and Methods: Mature nodal explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog media including 0.5 mg L1 6-benzylaminopurine. Obtained shoots were subcultured on same fresh media supplemented with different (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg L1) 6-benzylaminopurine concentrations. Explants from multiplied shoots were used for callusing experiments. Effects of various combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin, indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on callus production were tested. At the end of the incubation period calli were weighted and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test.
Results: When compared to others, all concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine were found to be the most effective on callus induction. Maximum mean callus weight of 0.327±0.07 g/callus was found at media supplemented with 0.5 mg L1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg L1 6-benzylaminopurine in combination. Furthermore, higher kinetin concentrations caused production of fragile calli which are frequently used to initiate cell cultures.
Conclusions: The results have shown that media enriched with indole-3-acetic acid+kinetin combinations are more suitable for fragile calli production while media supplemented with 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid+6-benzylaminopurine combinations provide large but compact callus tissues. The findings will contribute to the establishment of cell suspension cultures.

Keywords: Amsonia orientalis, Apocynaceae, callogenesis, plant growth regulators, secondary metabolite production

Citation: Acemi A, Özen F, Kiran R. Development of an efficient callus production protocol for Amsonia orientalis: A critically endangered medicinal plant. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):105-12. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.13

Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?
Muawiz Ayvaz, Mesut Koyuncu, Avni Güven, Kurt V. Fagerstedt

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Abstract

Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient.
Materials a n d Methods: Two different barley {Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0,10, 20 ppm) to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out.
Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars.
Conclusions: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

Keywords: abscisic acid, boron toxicity, Hordeum vulgare, indole acetic acid

Citation: Ayvaz M, Koyuncu M, Güven A, Fagerstedt KV. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):113-20. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.14

Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts
Nacide Kizildag, Hüsniye Aka Sagliker, Ahu Kutlay, Şahin Cenkseven, Cengiz Darici

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Abstract

Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey).
Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28°C and constant moisture.
Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of P. maritima, P. pinea, and E. camaldulensis were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu)/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively.
Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

Keywords: eucalyptus camaldulensis, microbial activity, Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, soil salinity

Citation: Kizildag N, Sagliker HA, Kutlay A, Cenkseven Ş, Darici C. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts. Eurasia J Biosci. 2012;6(1):. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2012.6.0.15