2011, Volume 5, Issue 1 (Volume 5, Issue 1, January-December 2011)

Optimal conditions for production of extracellular protease from newly isolated Bacillus cereus strain CA15
Fikret Uyar, Ilknur Porsuk, Göksel Kizil, Ebru Ince Yilmaz

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Abstract

An alkaline protease producer Bacillus sp. strain CA15 was isolated from soil. The microorganism was found to be closely related to Bacillus cereus based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The culture conditions for higher protease production were optimized with respect to carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions, pH and temperature. Maximum protease production was obtained in the medium supplemented with 1% skim milk, 1% starch and 0.6% MgSO4.7H2O, initial pH 8.0 at 35°C. The best enzyme production was obtained during the stationary phase in which the cell density reached to 1.8x108 cells/mL. The level of protease was found to be low in the presence of inorganic nitrogen sources. The protease production was diminished in the presence of sucrose and lactose. The extreme stability towards Triton X-100, Tween 20 and SDS was observed by Bacillus sp. CA15 alkaline protease. The enzyme activity was inhibited by PMSF suggested that presence of serine residues at the active sites.

Keywords: alkaline protease, Bacillus sp., optimum culture conditions, 16S rRNA gene

Citation: Uyar F, Porsuk I, Kizil G, Yilmaz EI. Optimal conditions for production of extracellular protease from newly isolated Bacillus cereus strain CA15. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.1

Determination of some ecological characteristics and economical importance of Vitex agnus-castus
Yunus Dogan, Ilker Ugulu, Nazmi Durkan, M. Cuneyt Unver, Hasan Huseyin Mert

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Abstract

This study was conducted in order to exhibit some of the ecological and economical attributes of Vitex agnus-castus, a typical Mediterranean plant. The study was conducted in two different stages. At first, soil samples of V. agnus-castus were collected from 38 different localities in the Western Anatolian part of Turkey during flowering to investigate the soil properties. It was observed that this plant generally prefers loamy-textured, neutral, and slightly alkaline soils poor in calcium carbonate, containing varying amounts of organic matter, moderate and rich in nitrogen, rich in phosphorus and deficient in potassium. In addition, the economical and ethnobotanical importance of V. agnus-castus was investigated. It was observed that the species is widely used as a pharmaceutical drug, as a dye plant, as a source of honey, as a material in basket weaving, and for ornamental use. It is used in landscape architecture because it is a shrub with beautiful flowers and aroma.

Keywords: ecology, ethnobotany, Turkey, Vitex agnus-castus

Citation: Dogan Y, Ugulu I, Durkan N, Unver MC, Mert HH. Determination of some ecological characteristics and economical importance of Vitex agnus-castus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):10-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.2

Influence of agrochemicals and Azotobacter sp. application on soil fertility in relation to maize growth under nursery conditions
Xavier Moses Martin, Chettipalayam Samiappan Sumathi, Velu Rajesh Kannan

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Abstract

In the present study, the effort has been taken to analyze the effects caused by agrochemicals. The best alternative to agrochemicals is biofertilizers. It is necessary to understand the beneficial role played by biofertilizer in crop production and regaining the soil fertility. Thus, the present study compares the effect of agrochemicals [fertilizers (urea), fungicide (carbendazim) and insecticide (endosulfan)] and biofertilizers (Azotobacter sp.) on maize under nursery trials were carried out in Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) by altering the present recommendation. The effect of above-mentioned treatments was studied based on the maize growth, phytochemical concentrations, soil fertility level and microbial population. The treatment with Azotobacter sp. and actual recommended dose of urea were performing well when compared to other agrochemical treatments. The higher the concentration of agrochemical application, lower is the plant growth. It is incurred from the study that generally the usage of agrochemicals was seriously disturbing plant biotic characters and soil ecology.

Keywords: AM fungi, Azotobacter sp., fungicide, insecticide, maize

Citation: Martin XM, Sumathi CS, Kannan VR. Influence of agrochemicals and Azotobacter sp. application on soil fertility in relation to maize growth under nursery conditions. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):19-28. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.3

Comparative study of the growth parameters of legumes grown in fipronil-stressed soils
Munees Ahemad, Mohammad Saghir Khan

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Abstract

In modern agronomy, insecticides of the diverse chemical families are repeatedly used to control various plant growth limiting insect pests and to improve plant productivity. However, the intensive application of these plant protecting agrochemicals results in their accumulation in soils in substantial concentration and deteriorates the soil fertility. Previous studies concerning the effect of insecticides are commonly confined to a specific legume and reports about the concurrent impact of any specific insecticide on more than one legume in parallel are rare. The present study was therefore, designed to assess the effect of insecticide fipronil simultaneously on common food legumes (chickpea, pea, lentil and green gram). In this study, fipronil displayed a varying degree of toxicity to the tested legumes. The highest toxicity of fipronil was observed in the shoot dry biomass, leghaemoglobin and chlorophyll content, and the seed protein in chickpea, nodule numbers and nodule biomass in pea, root dry biomass and shoot N in green gram, and nodule biomass, root N, root P, shoot P, and seed yield in lentil. Generally, the most toxic effect of fipronil was observed on the growth parameters of lentil plants.

Keywords: fipronil, insecticide, legume, soil, toxicity

Citation: Ahemad M, Khan MS. Comparative study of the growth parameters of legumes grown in fipronil-stressed soils. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):29-36. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.4

RAPD-based assessment of genetic diversity among annual caraway (Carum carvi) populations
Bochra Laribi, Nejia Zoghlami, Myriam Lamine, Karima Kouki, Abdelwahed Ghorbel, Abdelaziz Mougou

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Abstract

For the first time, genetic variability and differentiation among five annual caraway (Carum carvi) populations originating from Tunisia, Germany and Egypt were examined. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker data were obtained and analysed with respect to genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow. Fourteen primers generated a total of 136 discernible and reproducible bands across the analyzed populations, out of which 56 were polymorphic. The UPGMA cluster analysis permitted the discrimination of all the genotypes and their sorting into 3 main groups. Tunisian caraway populations diverged significantly from German and Egyptian ones. Population clustering was made dependently from geographic origin. This has been further explained at the DNA level as we were able to select a set of RAPD fingerprints unique to each of the studied populations. Furthermore, dimensional graph derived from factorial analysis of RAPD frequency data, allowed significant grouping of the genotypes into five sub-plots, representing each one population. Shannon's index values showed that variation ranks between rather than within populations. These results indicated that considerable genetic differences among C. carvi populations were registered.

Keywords: Carum carvi, differentiation, diversity, population

Citation: Laribi B, Zoghlami N, Lamine M, Kouki K, Ghorbel A, Mougou A. RAPD-based assessment of genetic diversity among annual caraway (Carum carvi) populations. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):37-47. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.5

Isolation of endophytic fungi from Coscinium fenestratum -a red listed endangered medicinal plant
Santhosh Wilson Goveas, Royston Madtha, Shashi Kiran Nivas, Leo D'Souza

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Abstract

Enumeration of the endophytic fungi from the red listed, critically endangered medicinal plant, Coscinium fenestratum was investigated for the first time. The ubiquitous presence of 41 endophytic fungi belonging to sixteen different taxa was identified from 195 samples of healthy leaves and stem using traditional morphological methods. The overall colonization rate of endophytes in both the leaf and the stem was found to be 21.02%.The stem showed low percentage frequency of colonization of the endophytic fungi when compared to leaf segments. Among the endophytic flora, Phomopsis jacquiniana was found to be the core-group fungus with a colonization frequency of 4.6%.

Keywords: Berberine, biodiversity, Coscinium fenestratum, endophytic fungi, Phomopsis jacquiniana

Citation: Goveas SW, Madtha R, Nivas SK, D'Souza L. Isolation of endophytic fungi from Coscinium fenestratum -a red listed endangered medicinal plant. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):48-53. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.6

Floristic properties of lowland meadows in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey
Erkan Yalcin, Mahmut Kilinc, Hamdi Güray Kutbay, Ali Bilgin, Hasan Korkmaz

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Abstract

The flora of the grazed and ungrazed alluvial meadows in central the Black Sea Region of Turkey was investigated between 2001 and 2003. The study area is situated along the coast of the central Black Sea Region of Turkey. This area floristically belongs to the Euxine province of the Euro-Siberian phytogeographical region. The studied meadows are used as rangeland. The flora of the study area consists of 29 families, 84 genera, and 122 species and subspecies or varieties. With 19.66% of the plants belonging to, the Euro-Siberian Region, 11.46% are of the Mediterranean floristic region, with 68.85%, of the pluriregional or unknown. The life-form spectrum consists of 69.67% Hemicryptophytes, 22.13% Therophytes, 5.73% Chamaephytes, and 2.45% Geophytes, respectively. The aim of this paper is to define the floristic composition of the natural alluvial meadows in the central Black Sea Region of Turkey. The Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands and The Flora Europea were mainly used to identify the specimens.

Keywords: Black Sea, flora, grazing, meadow, Turkey

Citation: Yalcin E, Kilinc M, Kutbay HG, Bilgin A, Korkmaz H. Floristic properties of lowland meadows in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):54-63. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.7

Production of extracellular alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis RSKK96 with solid state fermentation
Nurullah Akcan, Fikret Uyar

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Abstract

The production of extracellular alkaline protease by producing Bacillus subtilis RSKK96 was studied with solid state fermentation (SSF). Different agro residues as substrate were studied for enzyme production. The highest enzyme production was expressed with lentil husk as units per mass of dry substrate (3937.0 U/mg). Production parameters were optimized as incubation time 120 h, extraction medium Triton-X100 1%, initial moisture content 30%, initial pH 9.0. The high level of alkaline protease was obtained in the medium containing arabinose followed by lactose, galactose, and fructose. Among various nitrogen sources, beef extract was found to be the best inducer of alkaline protease, while other nitrogen sources repressed enzyme production. Among metal salts FeSO4.7H2O and MgSO4.7H2O was found to increase protease
production. The maximum enzyme production (5759.2 U/mg) was observed with lentil husk in 1000 mL of fermentation medium volume.

Keywords: Alkaline protease, Bacillus subtilis RSKK96, industrial enzyme, solid state fermentation

Citation: Akcan N, Uyar F. Production of extracellular alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis RSKK96 with solid state fermentation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):64-72. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.8

Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of barks of Mimusops elengi
Santosh Subhash Bhujbal, Rucha Prayagadas Deshmukh, Jayant Subhashchandra Bidkar, Vidya Amit Thatte, Shital Shivaji Awasare, Pratiksha Prahlad Garg

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Abstract

Mimusops elengi is a small or large evergreen tree (Sapotaceae) of western peninsula and is found in south India. It has been in use in the indigenous system of medicine since antiquity as a specific cure for the diseases of gum and teeth. The drug has been reported to be bitter, astringent, tonic, febrifuge, and as a cure for dysentery and constipation. The cytotoxic effects of ethanolic extract of barks of M. elengi was investigated on meristimatic cells of root tips of Allium cepa. The experiment was carried out by using different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10 mg/mL) of standard cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide and ethanolic extract. After 48 h and 96 h root length and mitotic index were calculated. The photomicrographs had shown the chromosomal abnormalities, stickiness, etc. with increasing concentration of ethanolic extract. The results of the presented study revealed that there is a significant decrease in percent mitotic index and root length of A. cepa with respective time and with increasing concentration.

Keywords: allium cepa, cytotoxic effect, Mimusops elengi, mitosis

Citation: Bhujbal SS, Deshmukh RP, Bidkar JS, Thatte VA, Awasare SS, Garg PP. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of barks of Mimusops elengi. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):73-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.9

Observations on the wall flora of Kyustendil (Bulgaria)
Anely Nedelcheva

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Abstract

The wall fora of two buildings, the Historical Museum and the Dervish Bath (16t h century), in the central part of the town of Kyustendil was investigated. Previous data for the same area of study has shown that the wall flora includes more than 120 species of vascular plants. This study presents data from five years of observations (2005-2010). During the last three years the town administration has conducted an urban maintenance program, including old town walls. These activities changed the condition of the walls to specific vertical habitats. Restored and cleaned walls present a unique opportunity for spontaneous colonization by the diversified surrounding landscape flora. The present study shows the dynamics of species diversity and analyzes the conformities and trends about the origin of this process. Most of them are associated with wall characteristics such as ferns (Asplenium trichomanes and Asplenium rutamuraria) and typically xerophytes (Arenaria serpyllifolia). New species such as Acer negundo and Catalpa speciosa, were located on the roof of the buildings. Trees negatively affect a walls' structure and present a basic problem for the preservation of walls. Some are accepted as an additional ornamental element and contribute to the complete perception of architectural and historical sites especially mosses, ferns and flowering plants (e.g. Cymbalaria muralis, Sedum hispanicum, Chelidonium majus, Oxalis spp., Trifolium spp.). The total representation of alien species on the studied walls is 17% and the most common families among the alien species are Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Oxalidaceae, a few of them are also highly invasive (e.g. Ailanthus altissima, Acer negundo, Oxalis spp.). On the basis of the previous and present study the present state of the wall was estimated and recommendations were made about maintaining the old walls and their neighboring area.

Keywords: alien invasive plant, urban vascular flora, wall preservation

Citation: Nedelcheva A. Observations on the wall flora of Kyustendil (Bulgaria). Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):80-90. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.10

Do fatty acid profiles help to explain sesarmid crabs food choice?
Islam Seif Salum Mchenga, Makoto Tsuchiya

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Abstract

We evaluate the use of the combination approach of fatty acid (FA) profiles and Carbon/Nitrogen ratios to investigate the feeding preference of the sesarmid crab Perisesarma bidens on different diets. The alga Enteromorpha intestinalis, Kandelia obovata leaves and propagules were used in a laboratory feeding assay. Consumption rates of P. bidens were higher in the order of algae= leaves>propagules. C/N ratios indicate that P. bidens significantly assimilates both nitrogen and carbon from algae, nitrogen but not carbon from brown leaves, and only carbon from propagules. A comparison of FAs in tissues and faeces indicated that crabs efficiently assimilate essential FAs (EFAs) from a given diet in the order of algae>leaves>propagules. Results of higher EFA ratios ( UJ 3/ u 6 ) match with that of low C/N ratios indicating that algae had higher nutritional value than leaves and propagules. FA profiles suggested that brown leaf palatability was due to decomposing activity by bacteria and fungi in the leaf tissues. These data suggest that the combination of FA profiles and C/N ratios provides a better understanding of the diet choice by sesarmid crabs.

Keywords: assimilation efficiency, C/N ratio, faeces, fatty acid, Perisesarma bidens

Citation: Mchenga ISS, Tsuchiya M. Do fatty acid profiles help to explain sesarmid crabs food choice?. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):91-102. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.11

The histopathological effects of an electromagnetic field on the kidney and testis of mice
Latifa Ishaq Khayyat

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Abstract

The present study investigates the possible histopathological effects of isothermal non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the kidney and testis of mice. Forty five adult male BALB/c mice were divided into two experimental groups and a control group. One group was exposed to frequency electromagnetic radiation between 3.9 x 10/4 Hz and 7.5 x 1014 Hz for 8 h per day for 3 days and other group was exposed to frequency electromagnetic radiation between 3.9 x 1014 Hz and 7.5 x 1014 Hz for 8 h per day for 12 days. At the end of the exposed period, light microscopical studies. Significant histopathological alterations were observed in the treated animals after 3 days. The kidney showed congested blood vessels, vacuolated and degenerated renal tubules with necrosis in the renal epithelium, dilatation of Bowman's capsule with atrophied glomeruli, and infiltration of leucocytes. The testis showed atrophied seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue expended the space between the seminiferous tubules, necrosis in the germinal epithelial cells of the seminiferous tubules, a decrease in sertoli cells, deceleration of spermatogenesis, and degeneration of germ cells. The histopathological alterations in the kidney and testis were more obvious after 12 days of treatment.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field (EMF), kidney, testis, mice

Citation: Khayyat LI. The histopathological effects of an electromagnetic field on the kidney and testis of mice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):103-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.12

Embryonic and larval development of critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita
Muhammad Fazlul Awal Mollah, Khanam Taslima, Harunur Rashid, Zakir Hossain, Muhammad Nasif Sarowar, Muhammad Rakibul Kabir Khan

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the embryonic and larval development of freshwater catfish Rita rita. The mature eggs and sperms were collected by using artificial insemination technique and fertilized eggs were incubated in mini circular hatchery with provision of continuous water supply. The fertilized eggs were transparent, demarsal, spherical, non-adhesive and brownish in colour with a diameter ranging between 1.3 to 1.6 mm. First cleavage occurred within 25-30 min post-fertilization at temperature of 28±1°C. Hatching started 22 h post-fertilization and completed within 24 h at the same temperature range. Newly hatched larvae were 2.0 mm in length devoid of mouth and pigmentation and started feeding within 48-60 h post-hatching. To date, this is the first time the early embryonic and larval development of freshwater catfish R. rita is described. Thus the findings of the present study provide valuable information that may help establishing the large scale seed production technique of Rita.

Keywords: embryo development, larva, metamorphosis, Rita rita

Citation: Mollah MFA, Taslima K, Rashid H, Hossain Z, Sarowar MN, Khan MRK. Embryonic and larval development of critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):110-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.13

The application of amplified TSPY and amelogenin genes from maternal plasma as a non-invasive bovine fetal DNA diagnosis
Arash Davoudi, Ramin Seighalani, Seyed Ahmad Aleyasin, Alireza Tarang, Rouhollah Radjabi, Farideh Tahmoressi

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Abstract

Some studies showed analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma had been introduced as a new method for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. Fetal sexing is possible at 8th week of pregnancy, using maternal blood sample testing. The aim was providing a rapid, reliable and non-invasive
method for sexing of bovine fetuses. Maternal blood samples were collected from 38 pregnant cows during the 8th-38th w of gestation. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation and DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method from 350 􀁺L maternal plasma. Two primer pairs for bovine amelogenin, Y-encoded, and testis-specific protein gene were used to amplification three fragments; 260 bp (Y-encoded, testis-specific protein gene), 341 and 467 bp (Y and X chromosome amelogenin gene). The polymerase chain reaction has been optimized for fragments amplification. The 467 bp fragment was detected in all samples. The 341 and 260 bp fragments were detected in 24 of 38 plasma samples of cows with male fetuses. The sensitivity and specificity of test was 100% with no false negative and positive results. The results showed that phenol-chloroform method was a simple and sensational to isolation fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The polymerase chain reaction is a favorable noninvasive method for bovine fetal sexing.

Keywords: amelogenin gene, maternal plasma, non-invasive, sexing, testis-specific protein gene

Citation: Davoudi A, Seighalani R, Aleyasin SA, Tarang A, Radjabi R, Tahmoressi F. The application of amplified TSPY and amelogenin genes from maternal plasma as a non-invasive bovine fetal DNA diagnosis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):119-26. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.14

Isolation and identification of a yeast strain involved in the degradation of Marrakech olive mill wastewater
Nawal Fakharedine, Mouna Ouadghiri, Mohamed Amar, Peter Winterton, Mohamed Hafidi, Yedir Ouhdouch

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Abstract

Yeasts are widely used in various sectors of biomedical research, biotechnologies and environmental contexts. During the treatment of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) by yeasts, extensive degradation of the polyphenols responsible for the highly toxic nature of this effluent occurs. In this study, one yeast isolate was selected for its ability to use the phenolic compounds in OMW as the sole carbon source for growth. The treatment of OMW using this isolate reduced the levels of polyphenols by about 50% and the fats by over 80%. Analysis of the polyphenol pool by HPLC revealed the presence of 6 compounds, most of which had disappeared after 5 and 25 days of treatment. Using API ID 32C, the taxonomic study of the selected isolate was found to be 99.9% identical to Candida valida. However, the molecular data using the Rep-PCR technique showed 83.6% similarity to Pichia membranifaciens and 80.6% to Pichia anomala.

Keywords: biological treatment, identification, yeast selection, olive oil mill wastewater (OMW)

Citation: Fakharedine N, Ouadghiri M, Amar M, Winterton P, Hafidi M, Ouhdouch Y. Isolation and identification of a yeast strain involved in the degradation of Marrakech olive mill wastewater. Eurasia J Biosci. 2011;5(1):127-37. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2011.5.0.15