2009, Volume 3, Issue 1 (Volume 3, Issue 1, January-December 2009)

Antioxidant potential of Ocimum sanctum under growth regulator treatments
Vadakkemuriyil Divya Nair, Abdul Jaleel Cheruth, Ragupathi Gopi, Muthiah Gomathinayagam, Rajaram Panneerselvam

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Abstract

In this study, Ocimum sanctum plants were treated with paclobutrazol (PBZ) and Abscissic acid (ABA) to analyze the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses. Nonenzymatic antioxidants like ascorbic acid decreased in the ABA treated plants. But it increased in the PBZ treated plants. Although both PBZ and ABA treatments considerably increased the a-tocopherol content, it was more in the PBZ treated plants. Enzymatic antioxidants like ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were also increased by the treatments. Catalase activity was increased by both growth regulators to a significant extent when compared with the control plants. In conclusion, our results indicated that the PBZ and ABA applications at low concentrations could be used as potential tools to increase defense mechanisms in medicinal plants.

Keywords: Abscisic acid, antioxidant, ascorbate peroxidates, ascorbic acid, catalase, Ocimum sanctum, paclobutrazol, a-tocopherol

Citation: Nair VD, Cheruth AJ, Gopi R, Gomathinayagam M, Panneerselvam R. Antioxidant potential of Ocimum sanctum under growth regulator treatments. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.1

The effect of sensitivity to abscisic acid on stomatal behaviour in Arabidopsis thaliana
Hao Zhang, Mu-Qing Qiu, Gen-Xuan Wang, Yi Gan, Ke-Feng Zheng, Xu-Guo Yao

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Abstract

Stomatal oscillation has been described as an efficient mechanism to prevent water loss, decrease the transpiration rate and to improve water use efficiency under severe drought conditions. Former researches demonstrated that ABA-induced H2O2 production and H2O2- activated Ca2+ channels were important mechanism for ABA-induced stomatal oscillation. In this study, how sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) regulates stomatal oscillation was investigated with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (abi1-1, insensitivity to ABA and era1-2, hypersensitive to ABA) and wild types. The results showed that (1) hypersensitivity to ABA strengthens stomatal oscillation and closure induced by ABA; (2) insensitivity to ABA abolishes stomatal oscillation and closure induced by ABA; and (3) there is a positive relationship between stomatal oscillation, closure and sensitivity to abscisic acid. The data indicates that sensitivity to ABA may regulate stomatal oscillation and closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Keywords: abscisic acid, Arabidopsis thaliana, leaf epidermal, rapid exchange treatment, stomatal oscillation

Citation: Zhang H, Qiu M, Wang G, Gan Y, Zheng K, Yao X. The effect of sensitivity to abscisic acid on stomatal behaviour in Arabidopsis thaliana. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):10-6. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.2

Growth and carbon partitioning of two genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown with low phosphorus availability
Tahar Boutraa

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Abstract

Production of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is often limited by the low availability of soil phosphorus (P). Bean genotypes differ in their P efficiency, dry matter production and partitioning under low P availability. Two genotypes of bean were used in this study cv. Carioca (CNF 0554) with indeterminate growth habit (GH) and small seeds and cv. Prince (commercially available) with a determinate GH and large seeds. Plants were grown in a solution culture with either a non-limiting or low P supply and harvested at two occasions to measure dry matter production (DM), DM partitioning, and growth parameters. The determinate genotype produced a higher DM than the indeterminate genotype, due to the larger seeds. At low P supply increased the root dry weight and decreased the leaf and stem dry weight. No effect was detected on the total DM. The DM partitioning follows the same pattern as DM production. Carioca invests less dry matter in the stem, and more dry matter in the root. Low P availability also reduced the leaf area (LA), leaf area ratio (LAR) and specific leaf area (SLA). Growth was affected differently between the genotypes by low P. There was a reduction in relative growth rates (RGR) and net assimilation rates (NAR) for Carioca, but no effect was found in Prince. A genetic variation for P response exists in bean genotypes with different growth habits.

Keywords: carbon partitioning, growth, Phaseolus vulgaris, phosphorus deficiency

Citation: Boutraa T. Growth and carbon partitioning of two genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown with low phosphorus availability. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):17-24. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.3

Screening of biological activity of Zosima absinthifolia fruits extracts
Seyed Mehdi Razavi, Alireza Ghasemiyan, Sakineh Salehi, Farahrouz Zahri

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Abstract

Zosima absinthifolia is a perennial herb which is distributed from Turkey to East Asia and Iran. It's fruits are used as a food spice in Iran and Turkey. In this work, we will study some biological activities of the fruits of the plant. The MTT assay indicated that methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic effects. In the DPPH assay, the extract showed high antioxidant potential with an RC50 value of 143.5 μg mL-1. In the disc diffusion assay, the methanol extract was found to have a significant antibacterial effects against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts displayed phytotoxic properties in the lettuce assay.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, Zosima absinthifolia

Citation: Razavi SM, Ghasemiyan A, Salehi S, Zahri F. Screening of biological activity of Zosima absinthifolia fruits extracts. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):25-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.4

A contribution to the bryophyte flora of southwestern Turkey: Bryophyte flora of Yilanli Mountain (Mugla-Turkey)
Ozlem Tonguc Yayintas

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Abstract

In this study, 286 plant specimens were collected and identified from the Yilanli Mountain region. In additionally 107 taxa, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera, were found. Among these, 12 liverworts species were defined. In addition 29 taxa are new records for square C11 according to the Henderson 1961 grid system.

Keywords: bryophyte, flora, Mugla, Turkey

Citation: Yayintas OT. A contribution to the bryophyte flora of southwestern Turkey: Bryophyte flora of Yilanli Mountain (Mugla-Turkey). Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):29-39. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.5

Vegetation structure and community patterns of Tehri Dam Submergence Zone, Uttarakhand, India
Bhupendra Singh Adhikari, Sanjay Kumar Uniyal, Gopal Singh Rawat

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Abstract

The present paper deals with the vegetation structure and community patterns within and between various plant communities in the Tehri Dam Submergence Zone in Garhwal, in the western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. The submergence zone is comprised of two valleys, the Bhagirathi submergence zone and the Bhilangna submergence zone. Four major plant communities were identified in both the submergence zones with varied associations through TWINSPAN. Most of the communities are similar in both the submergence zones, while their associations altered due to the micro-climatic variations. The species richness and diversity was high in most of the sites in the Bhagirathi submergence zone compared to the Bhilangna submergence zone, where species richness and diversity were more or less similar in most of the sites. The evenness values in most of the sites indicate that the species were distributed evenly in the Bhagirathi submergence zone, while heterogeneously in most of the sites in the Bhilangna submergence zone. However, the rate of species change, for example, the 13- diversity was higher in the Bhilangna submergence zone compared to the Bhagirathi submergence zone. The biomass of Lantana (74.5%) was high for the entire submergence zone compared to Carissa (25.4%), with respect to the total available biomass for both species. However, the extraction was more for Carissa (2.2%) as compared to Lantana (1.2%), with respect to the total biomass of each species.

Keywords: biomass, diversity, plant community composition, submergence zone, Tehri Dam

Citation: Adhikari BS, Uniyal SK, Rawat GS. Vegetation structure and community patterns of Tehri Dam Submergence Zone, Uttarakhand, India. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):40-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.6

The biochemical basis of shoot and fruit borer resistance in interspecific progenies of brinjal (Solanum melongena)
Muthusamy Prabhu, Sundaram Natarajan, Desikathathachary Veeraragavathatham, Lakshmanan Pugalendhi

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Abstract

The biochemical basis of host plant resistance for shoot and fruit borer of brinjal was investigated using selected genotypes from the back crosses involving cultivated brinjal varieties and Solanum viarum. The different levels of biochemical constituents namely peroxidase, poly phenol oxidase, total phenols, and solasodine contents were observed in genotypes derived from inter-specific crosses and their parents. A higher level of polyphenol oxidase activity was observed in interspecific cross F6 EP65 x S. viarum. There was a clear correlation between the levels of biochemical constituents and shoot and fruit borer incidence. This study showed the biochemical parameters responsible for the resistance but showed as well the development of superior genotypes with resistance to shoot and fruit borer.

Keywords: Leucinodes orbonalis, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, Solanum melongena, solasodine

Citation: Prabhu M, Natarajan S, Veeraragavathatham D, Pugalendhi L. The biochemical basis of shoot and fruit borer resistance in interspecific progenies of brinjal (Solanum melongena). Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):50-7. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.7

Antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae grown on various agro-wastes
Mehmet Akyuz, Sevda Kirbag

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Abstract

In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae grown on various agrowastes were investigated. The antimicrobial activity from the extract of P. eryngii var. ferulae which was obtained from various culture medium was evaluated according to the disk diffusion method by using Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Staphylococcus aureus COWAN 1, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Candida albicans FMC 17, Candida glabrata ATCC 66032, Trichophyton spp., and Epidermophyton spp. At the end of the experimental studies, the methyl alcohol extracts of P. eryngii var. ferulae were shown to inhibit to different degrees the growth of microorganisms to (7.7-10.3 mm) also, mushroom extracts have a lower antimicrobial activity as to a comparison antibiotic (13.0-18.0 mm).

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, pathogen microorganisms, Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae

Citation: Akyuz M, Kirbag S. Antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae grown on various agro-wastes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):58-63. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.8

Phytochemistry and antimicrobial compounds of Hymenocrater calycinus
Ahmad Reza Gohari, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ahmad Reza Shahverdi, Narguess Yassa, Maryam Malmir, Kamyar Mollazade, Ali Reza Naghinejad

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Abstract

The genus, Hymenocrater, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae which contains eleven shrub species, of which H. calycinus belonges and grows wildly in Northeastern Iran. From the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowered aerial parts of Hymenocrater calycinus, four compounds were isolated using chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic data (MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and 1H-1H COSY). The effect of rosmarinic acid, as the main component in our study was applied to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the broth dilution method. Isolated compounds were identified as ß-sitosterol (1), ursolic acid (2), rosmarinic acid (3) and quercetin-3-O- rutinoside (4). The results of our assay against bacteria and fungi show that, rosmarinic acid has an antifungal property against Candida albicans (MIC, 250 μg mL-1).

Keywords: antifungal activity, Hymenocrater calycinus, quercetin-3-O- rutinoside, rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid, ß-sitosterol

Citation: Gohari AR, Saeidnia S, Shahverdi AR, Yassa N, Malmir M, Mollazade K, et al. Phytochemistry and antimicrobial compounds of Hymenocrater calycinus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):64-8. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.9

Biochemical compositions and antibacterial activities of Lantana camara plants with yellow, lavender, red and white flowers
Deepak Ganjewala, Silviya Sam, Kishwar Hayat Khan

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Abstract

Here we report the biochemical composition and antibacterial activities of the leaves and flowers of four Lantana camara (Verbanaceae) plants with yellow, lavender, red, and white flowers. Three out of the four plants showed almost similar carbohydrates and lipid compositions. The levels of carbohydrates (mg/g dry weight) in the flowers were comparatively higher than in the leaves and the lipids content was relatively higher in the leaves except L. camara lavender and white. In lavender L. camara the amount of the total carbohydrates was very low. Proteins extracted from the leaves and flowers were subjected to electrophoresis. Electrophoresis of leaf proteins revealed similarity among L. camara yellow, red, and white flowers while that of flowers proteins showed similarity between L. camara yellow, lavender, red, and white. Extracts of leaves and flowers obtained with ethyl acetate were studied for antibacterial activities. Leaf and flower ethyl acetate extracts exhibited considerable antibacterial activities against the bacteria used where the value of zone of inhibition ranged from 10-21 and 9-15 mm, respectively. For flower and leaf ethyl acetate extracts, the zone of inhibition (mm) measured ranged from 10-21 and 9-15 mm, respectively. Thus, the study of the biochemical parameters viz., lipids, carbohydrates and proteins has revealed similarity among the four different L camara. However, antibacterial activities vary from one L. camara to the other and also according to the type of tissue used.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Lantana camara, zone of inhibition

Citation: Ganjewala D, Sam S, Khan KH. Biochemical compositions and antibacterial activities of Lantana camara plants with yellow, lavender, red and white flowers. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):69-77. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.10

Dormancy breaking and germination of Prangos ferulaceae seeds
Seyed Mehdi Razavi, Roghayeh Hajiboland

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Abstract

The seed dormancy of Prangos ferulaceae (Apiaceae) has been studied with treatment the seeds by soaking, scarification, cold and warm stratification, alternating temperatures and GA3. Our results showed that the seeds dormancy can be broken by cold stratification at 5°C and 12°C which induced germination up to 35 and 40%, respectively. Alternating temperatures (15/6°C) promote germination only to 15%. Scarification, soaking, warm stratification and GA3 had no significant effects on seed germination. It has been found that light inhibits seed germination and the seeds have a negative photoblasticity. It has also been shown that cold temperatures promote the growth of the undeveloped embryo of the plant. After 10 weeks stratification of the seeds at 5°C, the embryo length increased 200%. In conclusion, it is obvious that, the seeds of P. ferulaceae have morphophysiologic dormancy.

Keywords: dormancy, Prangos ferulaceae, seed germination, stratification

Citation: Razavi SM, Hajiboland R. Dormancy breaking and germination of Prangos ferulaceae seeds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):78-3. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.11

Early embryonic and larval development of Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis
Subramanian Puvaneswari, Kasi Marimuthu, Ramasamy Karuppasamy, Mohammed Abdulkader Haniffa

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Abstract

The present study investigated the embryonic and larval development of Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis from fertilization until metamorphosis. The fully matured eggs and sperm were obtained by artificial insemination. The fertilized eggs were demersal, nonadhesive, spherical, and brownish green in color. The average diameter of the fertilized eggs ranged from 1.30 to 1.50 mm. The incubation period was from 23-24 h at an average temperature of 29 ± 1 °C . The newly hatched larvae were 2.5 ± 0.2 mm in length. The yolk absorption was completed within three d after hatching. The aerial breathing behaviour of the larvae was observed 10 d after hatching. The larva resembled the adult in its external features and was metamorphosed to young juveniles within 20 d post-hatching.

Keywords: embryo development, Heteropneustes fossilis, larva, metamorphosis

Citation: Puvaneswari S, Marimuthu K, Karuppasamy R, Haniffa MA. Early embryonic and larval development of Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):84-96. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.12

Photosynthetic responses of two wheat varieties to high temperature
Banu Efeoglu, Serpil Terzioglu

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Abstract

The effects of heat stress at 3 7 ° C and 4 5 ° C for 8 h on the seedlings of Karacadag and Firat wheat cultivars d i f f e r i ng in s e n s i t i v i t y was investigated by means of chlorophyll a fluorescence, p h o t o s y n t h e t i c pigment content and 2-D SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the t h y l a k o i d membrane. Heat stress inhibited chlorophyll accumulation at 4 5 ° C for 8 h and caused marked alterations in the chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthesis in the primary leaves of the wheat cultivars at 3 7 ° C and 4 5 ° C for 8 h. Examination of the 2-D SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the t h y l a k o i d membrane proteins f r om the t wo wheat cultivars showed that while a heat treatment at 3 7 ° C and 4 5 ° C did not induce or enhance the synthesis of any protein. While the synthesis of some proteins were repressed
when compared to the control temperature cultivars, the photosynthetic responses of Karacadag were less altered than Firat to the effect t h a t ; Karacadag showed lower reduction in the chlorophyll c o n t e n t , FV and FV/FM parameters where the F0 parameter only increased
in the Firat cultivar at 4 5 ° C . Therefore, Karacadag was determined to be a heat tolerant cultivar t h a t can be used for c u l t i v a t i o n in warmer regions.

Keywords: chlorophyll a fluorescence, Triticum, heat stress, 2-D electrophoretic analysis

Citation: Efeoglu B, Terzioglu S. Photosynthetic responses of two wheat varieties to high temperature. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):97-106. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.13

Seed germination behaviour of Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Mehmet Serdal Sakcali, Memduh Serin

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Abstract

Genus Diplotaxis is represented by more than 20 species mainly distributed in the North Mediterranean. Out of these Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket) is used widely in Italian and French cuisine. It has also been used for medicinal purpose for different illnesses throughout the history. In this study the germination behaviour of the seeds of D. tenuifolia was investigated. The seeds were very sensitive to pH and salinity stress. The seed germination increased under daylight conditions reaching a level of 80 percent but decreased in dark and continuous light. A remarkable increase was recorded (60%) in the germination of seeds subjected to +4°C shock for a week or two before left for germination. Pre-hydration followed by re-drying increased the germination to some extent (28%). These findings reveal that the storage conditions are important for establishing a seed bank of D. tenuifolia, in order to get highest germination.

Keywords: breaking dormancy, cold stratification, drying-rehydration, germination, stress

Citation: Sakcali MS, Serin M. Seed germination behaviour of Diplotaxis tenuifolia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):107-12. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.14

The effect of regular intake of Terminalia chebula on oxidative stress in mice originated from Salmonella typhimurium
Kishwar Hayat Khan

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Abstract

Typhoid is endemic and in most developing countries remains a public health problem. Due to an increasing resistance to antibiotics and the limited scope of the vaccine the requirement is to explore the efficacy of natural plant products in the treatment of this disease. In this study
we have evaluated the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula in connection with the oxidative stress generated in Swiss albino mice by Salmonella typhimurium. Mice pretreated through the oral route with the water extract of T. chebula at a dose of 500 mg/kg (T500) body wt for a
period of 30 d exhibited a full protection against 1X105 Colony forming units (CFU) of S. typhimurium injected intraperitonially. Mice pretreated with T500 for a period of 30 d followed with 50000 CFU of S. typhimurium showed a decrease in Xanthine oxidase activity by 31% and an increase in both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity by 25% as compared to the infected saline treated control. The reduction in the oxidative stress indicated the effectiveness of the drug against S. typhimurium which can also be used against typhoid.

Keywords: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Terminalia chebula, typhoid, xanthine oxidase

Citation: Khan KH. The effect of regular intake of Terminalia chebula on oxidative stress in mice originated from Salmonella typhimurium. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):113-21. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.15

Effect of leaf extracts of Dendrosicyos socotrana and Jatropha unicostata on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces
Abdul Kadir Raoof Barzinji, Ramzi Ahmed Mothana, Abdul Karim Nasher

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Abstract

The present work evaluates the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Dendrosicyos socotrana and Jatropha unicostata on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro, and on the development of secondary hydatid cysts, in vivo. Three different concentrations of each leaf extract were used. Concentrations of 5000 and 1000 μg/mL, for D. socotrana and J. unicostata, respectively, exhibited the highest protoscolicidal activity, significantly reducing and/or stopping protoscolex viability. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of the extracts in white mice invoked noticeable inhibitory effects on the in vivo development of secondary hydatid cysts. These effects were compared with those of albendazole sulfoxide, a commonly used treatment for hydatidosis.

Keywords: Dendrosicyos socotrana, Echinococcus, hydatidosis, Jatropha unicostata, Socotra Island

Citation: Barzinji AKR, Mothana RA, Nasher AK. Effect of leaf extracts of Dendrosicyos socotrana and Jatropha unicostata on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):122-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.16

Suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 expression by brown algae Sargassum micracanthum in RAW 264.7 macrophages
Weon-Jong Yoon, Young Min Ham, Sang-Suk Kim, Byoung-Sam Yoo, Ji-Young Moon, Jong Seok Baik, Nam Ho Lee, Chang-Gu Hyun

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Abstract

Despite its beneficial role in host defense mechanisms, excessive nitric oxide (NO) production by activated macrophages has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. To clarify the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activities of Sargassum micracanthum, we evaluated whether extracts of S. micracanthum could modulate the production of NO by activated macrophages. S. micracanthum were extracted with 80% EtOH. The extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, C H 2 C l 2 , EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the hexane and C H 2 C l 2 fractions of S. micracanthum extract were effective inhibitors of LPS-induced NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effects of the hexane and C H 2 C l 2 fractions of S. micracanthum were accompanied by dosedependent decreases in the production of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. To test the inhibitory effects of S. micracanthum fractions on other cytokines, we also performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays for TNF- a , IL-1IS, and IL-6 in LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In these assays, the hexane and C H 2 C l 2 fractions of S. micracanthum produced dose-dependent decreases in the production and mRNA expression of TNF-a , IL-1IS, and IL-6. To test the potential application of S. micracanthum extract as a cosmetic material, we also performed MTT assays on human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as primary skin irritation tests. In these assays, S. micracanthum extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that S. micracanthum extracts may be considered potential anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.

Keywords: brown algae, cosmetics, inflammation, primary skin irritation tests, Sargassum micracanthum

Citation: Yoon W, Ham YM, Kim S, Yoo B, Moon J, Baik JS, et al. Suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, and COX-2 expression by brown algae Sargassum micracanthum in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):130-43. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.17

Survival of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter junii at various concentrations of sodium chloride
Jasna Hrenovic, Tomislav Ivankovic

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Abstract

The survival of two heterotrophic bacteria in conditions of various concentrations of NaCl was tested. Both bacteria can commonly enter marine environments through sewage or wastewater treatment plant effluents; the Escherichia coli is a common enteric bacterium and Acinetobacter junii is a phosphate-accumulating bacterium inhabiting activated sludge. When cultivated in nutrient rich media (COD 8700 mg O2 L-1), both bacteria were multiplying during 72 h at concentrations of NaCl up to 5% for E. coli and 3.5% for A. junii. Total die-off of E. coli was detected at 72 h by NaCl concentration of 20%. Total die-off of A. junii was detected at 72 h by NaCl concentration of 10%. When the same bacteria were cultured in nutrient depleted media (COD 90 mg O2 L-1), the multiplication of E. coli stopped at 3.5% of NaCl and higher, but the cells were able to survive for longer period of time at extreme NaCl concentrations of 20 and 30%. The negative influence of NaCl to A. junii was pronounced in conditions of organic matter shortage and rapid die-off was observed at 3.5% of NaCl and higher. Both bacteria seemed to be osmotolerant when cultured in nutrient-rich media, but not in nutrient-depleted media.

Keywords: acinetobacter junii, bacteria, Escherichia coli, sodium chloride, survival

Citation: Hrenovic J, Ivankovic T. Survival of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter junii at various concentrations of sodium chloride. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):144-51. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.18

The function of the a-rich region of the alphasatellite associated with the cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan
Muhammad Shafiq Shahid, Liaqat Ali, Saiqa Andleeb

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Abstract

A novel type of circular single stranded satellite-like DNA, known as alphasatellite (formerly known as DNA 1, was recently characterized and demonstrated to be associated with the monopartite Begomoviruses. Alphasatellite components are satellite like single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules associated with Begomoviruses (Geminiviridae) that require the betasatellite molecule to induce authentic disease symptoms in some hosts. Betasatellite is essential for induction of characteristic symptoms in plants. The function of alphasatellite in Begomovirus betasatellite infections remains unclear. It has been suggested that alphasatellite components may act to down regulate the virus infection by competing for cellular resources. Interestingly, they are closely related to the helper dependent Rep-encoding components of nanoviruses (a second family of single stranded, plant infecting DNA viruses), from which they are presumed to have been evolved. Alphasatellite molecules have two major sequence features. Firstly the component encodes a replication-associated protein (Rep), which is required to initiate the rolling circle replication. Consequently alphasatellite components are capable of self replication in host cells but require the helper Begomovirus to spread both within and between host plants. The second feature is a region of sequence rich in adenine (a-rich). To investigate the function of the a-rich sequence, this was deleted from the CLCuD alphasatellite by PCR mediated amplification. The a-rich deleted mutant of the alphasatellite remained capable of replication and systemic infection in plants, in the presence of a helper begomovirus. This indicates that the a-rich region is not required for replication or maintenance in plants.

Keywords: alphasatellite, Begomovirus, Geminivirus, Pakistan, whitefly

Citation: Shahid MS, Ali L, Andleeb S. The function of the a-rich region of the alphasatellite associated with the cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. Eurasia J Biosci. 2009;3(1):152-6. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2009.3.0.19