2019, Volume 13, Issue 1 (Volume 13, Issue 1, January-July 2019)

(In Progress)

Effect of crude extracts of the peels of Musa acuminate L. Banana plant in some biological aspects of Culex Molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) with an estimation of the enzymatic effectiveness of Tyrosinase
Sarah Kadhim Al-Rahimy, Aseel Kariem Al-Sultany, Zahraa Raheem Murshidy, Rafid Abbas Al-Essa, Ayam Razaq Abdul Kadhim

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Abstract

The effectiveness of the crude extract of organic solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol was studied for peels of Musa acuminate L. banana that contains the Tyrosinase and determination of the enzymatic efficacy and protein, The concentrations of (0.5, 1 and 2) mg / ml were used in the treatment of the fourth larval instar of the insect and its effect on some biological aspects of Culex molestus mosquitoes in Karbala governorate in February 2018 for mosquitoes control. The results showed an increase in the rate of the fourth larval instar and pupae resulting from the fourth larval instar treatment and the percentage of cumulative mortality of immature stages and the increase in the percent of inhibition of emergence of adult. The use of these extracts led to a decrease in the rate of ages of the immature stages of male and female insect and the appearance of phenotypic deformation in the stages of different insects. The study also evaluated the enzymatic efficacy of Tyrosinase at 0.5 mg / ml and protein concentration of 1.25 mg / ml and the specific efficacy was 0.4 unit/ mg protein.

Keywords:

Citation: Al-Rahimy SK, Al-Sultany AK, Murshidy ZR, Al-Essa RA, Abdul Kadhim AR. Effect of crude extracts of the peels of Musa acuminate L. Banana plant in some biological aspects of Culex Molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) with an estimation of the enzymatic effectiveness of Tyrosinase. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):1-13.

Physico-chemical parameters, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton community as trophic state indices of two tropical lakes, southwestern Nigeria
Adedolapo Abeke Ayoade, Blessing O. Osuala, Temitayo A. Adedapo

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Abstract

Background: Asejire and Eleyele Lakes are sources of water supply and used for fishing activities in southwestern Nigeria. However, various anthropogenic activities occur in their catchment area that could lead to deterioration of the ecological status. The purpose of this research was to determine the trophic status of the lakes (on which there is limited information) based on the environmental variables, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton assemblage.
Methods: Water samples were collected for six months and analyzed for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton. Other physicochemical parameters were determined in situ. The trophic level was calculated with the Carlson Formula. Phytoplankton data were analyzed to determine diversity indices using the Shannon Weiner and Margalef formula.
Results: The total nitrogen: total phosphorus ratio of the two lakes was interpreted that nitrogen could be the limiting factor for primary production. Trophic state index values from total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and Secchi disc transparency of both lakes exceeded the criteria at which lakes are interpreted as eutrophic. The dominance of blue green algae and abundance of green algae in both lakes further suggested they are eutrophic. The Shannon-Weiner and Margalef diversity indices for Eleyele and Asejire Lakes were H= 0.78, d = 8.78 and H= 0.72, d= 8.02, respectively.
Conclusion: These values suggested the lakes are in eutrophic condition. Future management activities need to reduce phosphorus load of the two lakes.

Keywords: Algae, Asejire and Eleyele Lakes, Eutrophication, Secchi disc transparency

Citation: Ayoade AA, Osuala BO, Adedapo TA. Physico-chemical parameters, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton community as trophic state indices of two tropical lakes, southwestern Nigeria. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):15-22.

Cannibalism of the medical leeches Hirudo verbana
Ruslan Aminov

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Abstract

The experiment involved 150 hungry ML (Hirudo verbana Carena, 1820) aged 7-8 months, whose last feeding with blood of cattle was 4 months ago and 150 leeches in the first days after blood feeding (human and cattle). Before the experiment and after, not fed and after feeding leeches weighed in the scales. After landing in one container of not fed and fed leeches, after 20 minutes of Hirudo verbana, who were hungry attacked on the fed. Cannibalism manifested itself in one-fourth of all the hungry leeches. As a result of the study, we found that non-feeding manifested cannibalism to blood-fed medical leeches Hirudo verbana in the early days.

Keywords: cannibalism, behavior of medical leeches, hematophagus, blood

Citation: Aminov R. Cannibalism of the medical leeches Hirudo verbana. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):23-6.

Hydrothermal assisted biological synthesis of Silver nanoparticles by using honey and gomutra (Cow Urine) for qualitative determination of its antibacterial efficacy against Pseudomonas sp.isolated from contact lenses
Nishita Jain, Preeti Bhosale, Vidya Tale, Rabinder Henry, Jayant Pawar

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Abstract

Background: Biological synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using honey and gomutra shall become biocompatible and cost effective alternative method wherein no extra reducing agents were used which may create problems for living systems and also adds extra cost to the system.
Materials and Methods: The crude gomutra and purified honey (1 mg/mL) in sterile distilled water were used for the synthesis of Ag NPs by hydrothermal method. The characterization of Ag NPs was done by UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) to study optical and morphological characteristics, correspondingly. The isolation of bacterial culture was carried out by incubation of swabs taken from contact lenses of healthy volunteers, followed by its identification through microscopic and biochemical studies. Antibacterial activity of Ag NPs was performed against Pseudomonas species by anti-well diffusion assay and broth dilution method. Studies were also performed for determination of biofilm reduction by Ag NPs by congo red agar test and tube assay.
Results: Silver Nanoparticles were synthesized by using honey and gomutra by hydrothermal method The absorption spectrum of Ag NPs and band gap was found to be at 350 nm and 3.54 eV respectively, for honey and 275 nm and 4.50 eV, respectively, for gomutra by UV-Vis Spectroscopy. STM image showed Ag NP’s cluster morphology on surface at 200 nm for honey and 50 nm for gomutra. Ag NPs was found to be effective antibacterial agent at the concentration of 1mg/mL against Pseudomonas predominantly present in contact lenses and therefore have a may have applications in ophthalmology.

Keywords: Ag NPs, contact lens, biofilm, Pseudomonassp, honey, gomutra

Citation: Jain N, Bhosale P, Tale V, Henry R, Pawar J. Hydrothermal assisted biological synthesis of Silver nanoparticles by using honey and gomutra (Cow Urine) for qualitative determination of its antibacterial efficacy against Pseudomonas sp.isolated from contact lenses. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):27-33.

Gallotannin and Annona muricata extract inhibit polyphenol oxidase activity and mitigate browning in Malus domestica
Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi, Obafunmilayo Ladipo, Anne Adebukola Adeyanju, Oluwakemi Josephine Awakan, David Adeiza Otohinoyi, Chiagoziem Anariochi Otuechere

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Abstract

Background: The prevention of browning in fruits remains a great concern in the food industry.
Objective: In the present study, we evaluated the anti-browning potentials of gallotannin and Annona muricata extract in red apple (Malus domestica).
Materials and Methods: Apple slices were made and dipped in the different solutions; distilled water (control), 1 % gallotannin, 1 % Annona muricata extract or 1 % ascorbic acid. The treated apple slices were stored at 4 oC for 0, 7 and 14 days and used for the determination of the browning index, polyphenolic content, total protein, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities.
Results: The treatment with gallotannin, A. muricata and ascorbic acid reduced browning of apple for storage days 7 and 14. However, only gallotannin treatment preserved the polyphenolic content of the apple slices when compared to the control as well as the other treatment groups. Furthermore, all treatments reduced the activity of the polyphenol oxidase for days 0 and 7 storage, relative to the control. In contrast, the treatments had no effect on the peroxidase activity when compared to the control.
Conclusion: Data support the anti-browning potential of gallotannin, A. muricata and ascorbic acid. Further, anti-browning potential of these naturally derived materials may be linked with their inhibitory actions against polyphenol oxidase.

Keywords: enzymatic browning, food processing, natural products, polyphenols

Citation: Adeyemi OS, Ladipo O, Adeyanju AA, Awakan OJ, Otohinoyi DA, Otuechere CA. Gallotannin and Annona muricata extract inhibit polyphenol oxidase activity and mitigate browning in Malus domestica. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):35-9.

Curcumin pretreated hepatoprotectivity against antimalarial drug chloroquine induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats
S. Asha, P. Thirunavukkarasu, G. Taju

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Abstract

The present study was aimed to find out the protective effect of curcumin on hepatotoxicity resulting by commonly used antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ). Albino rats were administered with CQ 200mg/Kg body wt. We observed statistically significant hepatotoxicity following CQ administration. We further observed a significant alterations in biochemical parameters such as total protein, aspartate transferase, alanine transaminase, superoxide dismutase and catalase on tested curcumin (300mg/Kg b.wt) against CQ-induced hepatotoxicity and also found encouraging results with histopathological examination of liver section when compared with normal group rats. It is evidenced that curcumin exerts significant protection against CQ induced toxicity due to its antioxidant activity. In conclusion, thus our study strongly suggest that curcumin along with CQ should be recommended for treating malaria, so as to avoid the toxic influences of the above mentioned drug.

Keywords: chloroquine, curcumin, hepatotoxicity, malaria

Citation: Asha S, Thirunavukkarasu P, Taju G. Curcumin pretreated hepatoprotectivity against antimalarial drug chloroquine induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):41-8.

Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk
Vo Thanh Sang, Ngo Dai Hung, Le Phuong Uyen, Ngo Dai Nghiep, Kim Se-Kwon

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Abstract

Background: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., locally known as Sim, is a flowering plant belonging to the family Myrtacea. It have been used in traditional Vietnamese medicine for a long time for treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gynaecopathy, stomachache, and wound healing. In this study, the potential bioactivities of ethanol extract of Sim fruits due to scavenging free radicals, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediator production, and inhibiting histamine release were investigated in vitro.
Material and Methods: Sim fruits were obtained from from Duong Dong Town, Phu Quoc district, Kien Giang province, Viet Nam. The crude extract was prepared with Sim fruits in ethanol 80%. The free radical scavenging activity was conducted via DPPH and ABTS assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured by colorimetric assay and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was conducted by Western blot. Histamine release was measured by spectrofluorometric assay.
Results: Ethanol extract Sim fruits (EESF) was found to be able to scavenge DPPH and ABTS+ radicals with IC50 values of 94 ± 12 and 83 ± 9 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, NO production and iNOS protein expression were suppressed by EESF treatment at a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, EESF was effective in reducing histamine release from calcium ionophore-activated RBL-2H3 mast cells.
Conclusion: These results indicated the potential health benefit effects of Sim fruit due to its biological activities. These evidences supported it as a promising biomaterial for alternative medicine.

Keywords: Sim fruit, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, DPPH, histamine, iNOS

Citation: Sang VT, Hung ND, Uyen LP, Nghiep ND, Se-Kwon K. Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):49-55.

Expression of copper toxicity in the rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena oryzae Ind4
Smita Goswami, Rabbul Ibne A. Ahad, Mayashree B. Syiem

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Abstract

Effect of copper on the rice-field cyanobacterial isolate Anabaena oryzae Ind4 was analysed after a five-day exposure period. Copper affected vital parameters of the organism in a dose-dependent manner. The organism was to an extent tolerant to copper at 5 mg L-1 concentration; at this concentration cells showed comparable biochemical activities to that of the controlled cultures. However, beyond this level any increase in copper concentration led to significant adverse effects on all parameters of the organism studied. High copper levels led to severe morphological and ultra-structural changes in the cells distinctly visible under the scanning and transmission electron microscope.

Keywords: Anabaena oryzae Ind4, copper toxicity, carbon fixation, nitrogen metabolism, scanning and transmission electron microscope

Citation: Goswami S, Ahad RIA, Syiem MB. Expression of copper toxicity in the rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena oryzae Ind4. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):57-67.

Insertion red kidney beans in Iraqi food diversity program from production of cold tolerant lines by mutation technique
M. Kh. Jabbar

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Abstract

Two plant biotechnology experiments were conducted in institute of genetic engineering and biotechnology of high studies – university of Baghdad and college of sciences –university of Babylon, the other was in one of the opened greenhouse affiliated to ministry of agriculture to study new genotype of beans and its entering in food diversity program by the mutation of apex shoots of red kidney beans, the first experiment was included the irradiation of shoot apexes after its cut from shoots, the irradiation was by using ultraviolet radiation in three wavelengths (220, 320 and 400 nm) interaction with two exposure period (2 and 4 hours / day). The second experiment was cultured first and second generation seeds in five dates of planting in two seasons 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, the study traits of field experiment were: number of pods/plant, seed weight and plant seed yield. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications, the data was analyzed by using less significant difference test at 5% level, the results were: All mutant plants with different mutation treatments were given same results in second experiment, the CDKN1A gene was activated which inhibit kinase, it was cleared in D1, D2 and D5 treatments but it was silent in D3 and D4 treatment. D3 and D4 treatments was given significant growth and yield content: No. of pods per plant, seeds weight and plant seed yield in both the seasons, while D1, D2 and D5 treatments were not given yield, so new lines of red kidney beans are recommended in Iraqi food diversity program .

Keywords: irradiation, kidney bean, mutation, shoot apex, ultraviolet

Citation: Jabbar MK. Insertion red kidney beans in Iraqi food diversity program from production of cold tolerant lines by mutation technique. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):69-73.

Strategy of the Mangrove ecosystem management in efforts to combat abrasion in the Bantan District case of the Mangrove ecosystem in Teluk Papal Village, Bantan District, Bengkalis Regency, Indonesia
Zulkarnaini, Dendy Ariandi, Syahril

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Abstract

Mangroves in the Teluk Papal Village are in a community that grow naturally. Mangrove conditions in the Teluk Papal Village in some areas have been damaged as a result of beach abrasion, land conversion into plantations, and community logging. Damage to the mangrove area is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to research about the mangrove damage by monitoring the change of the mangrove area and to analyze the leading factors as to why this damage is occuring. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of damage and factors which cause mangrove damage, to calculate the total economic value and formulate a mangrove management strategy for the Teluk Papal Village, in the Bantan District. The results show that mangrove vegetation in the Teluk Papal Village consists of 10 species, namely Avicennia alba, Rhyzophora mucronata, Thespesia populnea, Sonneratia alba, Excoecaria agallocha, Sonneratia caseolaris, Bruguiera gymnorhyza, Xylocarpus granatum, Rhyzophora apiculata, Nypa fruticans. Based on the results of standardized criteria and guidelines for damage to mangroves KEPMENLH 201 in 2004, mangroves in the Teluk Papal Village are in good condition ( they are very solid and medium). This is based on the amount of tree density per hectare. The leading factor is coastal abrasion due to reduced mangrove vegetation in the front row, land conversion to plantation land and brick production. The estimated economic value of the mangroves is calculated by direct benefits, indirect benefits, benefits of choice and benefits of existence with a financial result of Rp 42.567.271.593.04. Based on the results of economic analysis it shows that the mangrove ecosystem in the Teluk Papal Village has a large economic value which means if there is a change in the mangrove area and its positive (increasing), then the value of the mangrove economy is positive (increased) and vice versa. This condition indicates that the mangrove ecosystem must be maintained so that its ecological, economic, social and environmental functions can be utilized sustainably.

Keywords: mangroves, sustainable management, Teluk Papal, economic valuation

Citation: Zulkarnaini, Ariandi D, Syahril. Strategy of the Mangrove ecosystem management in efforts to combat abrasion in the Bantan District case of the Mangrove ecosystem in Teluk Papal Village, Bantan District, Bengkalis Regency, Indonesia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):75-82.

Antifungal activity of bacteria against the phytopathogens of papaya (Carica papaya L.)
K. Girish, H.R. Prabhavathi

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of six bacterial strains procured from MTCC, India against two of the plant pathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Curvularia carica papayae, affecting papaya. Initial screening was done by dual culture assay and two relatively potent bacteria viz., Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7904 and Pseudomonas monteilii MTCC 9796 were selected and further assayed against the pathogens using crude extract of their culture filtrates by poisoned food technique. Both the bacteria exhibited significant antifungal activity against the phytopathogens (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Curvularia carica papayae) screened by complete inhibition of mycelial growth. The results suggest the possible applicability of these two bacteria for the eco-friendly management of papaya phytopathogens after further studies.

Keywords: papaya, phytopathogenic fungi, antifungal bacteria, biocontrol

Citation: Girish K, Prabhavathi H. Antifungal activity of bacteria against the phytopathogens of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):83-91.

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oil derived from the flesh of nutmeg fruit
Sophia Grace Sipahelut, John Alfred Patty, Zeth Patty, Ariance Yeane Kastanja, Vanessa Natalie Jane Lekahena

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Abstract

This research aims at determining the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the Nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil with some concentration ratios of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil to ethanol (1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) and examining the essential oil’s inhibiting activity of the growth of pathogenic bacteria, food-destroying bacteria and food-destroying fungi. The bacteria tested include Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, whereas the fungi tested are Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme. This study employs the agar diffusion and total plate count methods. The results show that the nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil may inhibit the growth of isolates at all concentrations. The higher of the concentration of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil, the wider the bacterial growth inhibition zone is. The utilization of nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil at all concentrations shows strong antibacterial power category against all tested bacteria. However, it shows weak antifungal power against all tested fungi.

Keywords: nutmeg fruit flesh-derived oil, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity

Citation: Sipahelut SG, Patty JA, Patty Z, Kastanja AY, Lekahena VNJ. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oil derived from the flesh of nutmeg fruit. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):93-8.

Biochemical characterization of phytase purified from Aspergillus niger S2
Arani Sandhya, Ayla Sridevi, Pallipati Suvarnalathadevi

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Abstract

Background: Phytic acid is the large reservoir of phosphorous of plant origin feed of monogastric animals. These animals are incapable of metabolizing phytic acid due to lack of phytase enzyme production. Phytases are a group of enzymes which are involved in hydrolyzing phytic acid and releasing inorganic phosphate Microorganisms are the main sources of phytases especially purified from filamentous fungi Aspergillus nigerS2.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, a three step purification study of phytase from Aspergillus niger S2 was done by using Sephadex G-50. The active fractions pooled after chromatography step was used for molecular mass determination through sodium dodecyl sulphate- poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE). Phytase activity was determined at different pH between 3.0 and 8.0. The effect of temperature on enzyme activity was studied of temperature range of 30-60 ºC. The action of the enzyme on several phosphorylated substrates was tested at concentrations of 3mM. The phytase enzyme function was tested on digestion of plant material.
Results: The molecular mass of A. niger phytase S2was also found to be 50kDa. The enzyme showed optimal pH at 5.0. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 400C. The enzyme showed high substrate affinity towards sodium phytate. The purified enzyme activity on digestion of grass and hay showed positive results with increased protein content, reducing sugar and phosphate.
Conclusion: The purified enzyme of the present study with these specifications can able to play a vital role in feed industry as a feed supplement in order to metabolize phytic acid and hence reduce soil pollution and eutrophication.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger S2, phytase enzyme, purification and Characterization, SDS PAGE, sodium phytate

Citation: Sandhya A, Sridevi A, Suvarnalathadevi P. Biochemical characterization of phytase purified from Aspergillus niger S2. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):99-103.

Health Protective Actions of Phycocyanin Obtained from an Egyptian Isolate of Spirulina platensis on Albino Rats
Ali Osman, Shahenda Abd-Elaziz, Ali Salama, Ahmed Abu Eita, Mahmoud Sitohy

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Abstract

Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective of phycocyanin as a natural source for antioxidant against oxidative stress induced artificially by CCl4 liver injury in Wister rats.
Material and Methods: The antioxidant activity of phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina platensis was evaluated in vitro by using DPPH assay. Also, hepatoprotective effect of phycocyanin at different levels (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated in Wistar Albino rats against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury.
Results: The hepatoprotective effect was estimated using several biochemical parameters and histopathological examination. Spirulina platensis phycocyanin, applied at different levels, could counteract the major rises in the levels of serum ALT, AST, urea and creatinine, total lipid and triglycerides, induced by subjecting Albino rats to CCl4 intoxication.  It could also moderate the reducing action of CCl4 exerted on the levels of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The negative control group showed a normal histological structure of the portal area, central veins and surrounding hepatocytes. Focal necrosis with inflammatory cells infiltration was detected in the hepatic parenchyma as associated with dilatation in the portal vein and inflammatory cells infiltration in the portal area of the positive control. The histopathological sections of the CCl4-stressed animals receiving phycocyanin at different concentrations were approaching the status of the negative control.
Conclusions: Phycocyanin can be recommended for food and health applications aiming at lowering potential oxidative stress.

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Phycocyanin, antioxidant, Cyanobacteria, CCl4

Citation: Osman A, Abd-Elaziz S, Salama A, Abu Eita A, Sitohy M. Health Protective Actions of Phycocyanin Obtained from an Egyptian Isolate of Spirulina platensis on Albino Rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):105-12.

Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis
Ameer S. Alfatlawi, Muntadher A. Alsaidi, Naseer K. Almaliky, Hashim Ali Abdulameer Alsherees

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Abstract

Objectives: Cholecystitis is one of the most widespread bacterial infections with a global extension. These infections are predominantly caused by Escherichia coli. The purpose of the study was conducted to isolate and identify bacterial agents for gallbladder patients and identify the frequency of ESBLs genes among E. coli isolates obtained from patients with significance bacterial infection.
Method: Eighty isolates were recognized as the significant bacterial infection and diagnosed by growth of at least 105 colony forming units (CFU)/ml of pathogens in a culture. The isolates were identified by traditional biochemical tests, and confirmed by the API 20E system. Additionally, identification of E. coli was confirmed by PCR technique and sequencing. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics was performed by disk diffusion. Extend spectrum beta-lactamase was evaluated by double disc synergy test. The Molecular techniques were used to detect the most common four kinds of ESBLs; TEM, SHV, CTX-M, and OXA. Extend spectrum beta-lactamase was evaluated by double disc synergy test.
Results: A total of 80 specimens were collected, of which 69.0% were female and 31.3 % were from males, age ranged 25-65 years. Significant bacterial infection was found in 80 (63.0%) specimens, however the frequency was significantly higher in female than in males (female: 80%; male: 20%) in all age groups. The results of the current study showed that 50 (63%) specimens gave bacterial growth, which are divided to Gram negative bacteria (82%) and Gram positive bacteria (18%). E. coli was the most common (36.3%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.5%), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA (6.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.0%), Enterococci faecalis (5.0%) and Salmonella typhi (2.5%). The isolates appeared high frequency of the resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested (the rates of resistance varied from 9% to 100%), the most effective antibiotic were amikacin and imipenem (86% and 100% susceptible). All 29 E. coli isolates were studied, of which 22 (75.9%) exhibited potential ESBL production. All ESBL producing isolates carried at least one bla gene; 19 (86.3%) isolates carried blaCTX-M, 13 (59.0%) isolates carried blaSHV, 8(36.3%) isolates carried blaOXA genes and 18 (82.0%) isolates carried blaTEM gene.
Conclusions: A higher occurrence of ESBL is producing E. coli was observed warranting prompt the need of surveillance for effective management of such MDR strains. Although, MDR rates are high and therapeutic options are limited, some therapeutic options remain for E. coli in Al-Najaf such as amikacin and imipenem. DNA Sequencing for these isolates and using phylogenic tree to known substitution for bacterial, gene bank, and document.

Keywords: ESBL, cholecystitis E. coli, PCR technique, Sequencing and Phylogenetic tree analysis

Citation: Alfatlawi AS, Alsaidi MA, Almaliky NK, Abdulameer Alsherees HA. Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):113-20.

Hormone induced spawning and feeding conditions for Betok fish (Anabas testudineus)
Sukendi, Windarti, Ridwan Manda Putra, Eddiwan

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Abstract

The objective of this study is to optimize the fertility and hatchability of eggs from the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) by using an Ovaprim® and hCG hormonal treatment. The impact of the feeding method on the growth and survival of the fish larvae was also investigated. A completely randomized design of experiments with five treatments and three replications was used in the study. The optimum hormonal treatment was found to be an injection of 0.5 ml Ovaprim®/kg body weight yielding a fertility and hatchability rate of 74% and 75%, respectively. The best tested diet for the growth and survival of the fish larvae was Tubifex worms varying from 3 to 43 days after hatching. This yields an absolute weight value of 0.828 gram, an absolute growth of 2.9 cm, a daily weight growth rate of 0.170% and a survival rate of 88.9%.

Keywords: climbing perch, Ovaprim®, hCG, fish farming

Citation: Sukendi, Windarti, Putra RM, Eddiwan. Hormone induced spawning and feeding conditions for Betok fish (Anabas testudineus). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):121-5.

Genetic linkage map construction for fibre quality traits in intraspecific upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Mariappan Ravichandran, Rana Debashis, Koona Subramanyam, Mahalingam Govindaraj

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Abstract

The quantitative traits such as fibre length, fibre strength, fineness, uniformity, color and elongation are considered as important fibre quality traits fetches high market price for cotton, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fibre quality traits in cotton (G.hirsutum) would be beneficial for cotton fibre yield and quality improvement . Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for fibre quality traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between JKC737 (G.hirsutum) and JKC725 (G.hirsutum) comprising 180 F6 – RILs. Population study was carried out for 3867 primer pairs using two parental genotypes (JKC737 & JKC725) of a mapping population developed for fibre quality related traits; only 174 SSR were polymorphic. Owing to a low level of polymorphism between the parental genotypes and a high degree of segregation distortion in recombinant inbred lines, genotypic data of only 120 polymorphic SSR on the mapping population consisting of 180 RIL could be used for construction of a linkage map; 120 SSR loci were mapped on eighteen different linkage groups that covered a total genetic distance of 2883.8cM. Hopefully this map will be enriched with more SSR loci in future and will prove useful for identification of quantitative trait loci/genes for molecular breeding involving improvement of fibre strength and other related traits in cotton.

Keywords: QTLs, fibre quality traits, genetic linkage map, marker assisted selection, RIL, polymorphic primers

Citation: Ravichandran M, Debashis R, Subramanyam K, Govindaraj M. Genetic linkage map construction for fibre quality traits in intraspecific upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):127-34.

Motivation and motives of juvenile delinquents
Maria A. Erofeeva, Aleksandr V. Grinenko, Lyudmila A. Stanovova, Natalia V. Kosolapova, Mikhail N. Mikhaylovsky, Inna A. Rybina, Igor G. Kochetkov

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Abstract

The article presents the study results of the motivational sphere of juvenile delinquents. The importance of the presented topic is due to the fact that the problems associated with the deviant behavior of minors attract scientists’ special attention and are constantly considered in both domestic and foreign scientific works. Nevertheless, despite a large number and high level of research devoted to the study of personality characteristics of a minor with deviant behavior, we have to state the lack of work on this problem. The article presents the study results of the juvenile delinquents’ motivation sphere which led to the following conclusions: the features of the motivation for minors’ deviant behavior were established, indicating typical and individual deformations in the structure of motives, goals, needs. Types of minors were identified based on the dominant needs and motives in the motivation; a comparative analysis of motives by age was made. It has been found that the characteristic features of the motivation of adolescents’ deviant behavior are: the weakening of a complex of socially useful needs; the artificial, perverted, or primitive nature of certain needs; imbalance between different types of needs; the prevalence of the need for self-assertion, which often bears a perverted character. It has been determined that the motivation of deviant behavior is such a system of goals, needs and motives, which is characterized by disharmony, contradiction, deformation of its components, prompting asocial actions and acts. The essence of the motivation sphere of minors with deviant behavior lies, firstly, in the specific composition and correlation of goals, needs and motives, and secondly, in the correlation links between the components of the motivation of deviant behavior and emotional, volitional, existential and self-regulation components.

Keywords: motives and motivation of juvenile delinquents, motivation of criminal behavior, personality of a minor

Citation: Erofeeva MA, Grinenko AV, Stanovova LA, Kosolapova NV, Mikhaylovsky MN, Rybina IA, et al. Motivation and motives of juvenile delinquents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):135-40.

The financial literacy assessment among students majoring in the field of finance
Tamara A. Belousova, Yuliya V. Gryzenkova, Nadezhda V. Kirillova, Bogdan S. Vasyakin, Elena L. Pozharskaya

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Abstract

The importance of the study is determined by the need of expanding requirements for financial literacy in regard to continuing changes and development of the financial landscape, and the increasing digitalization in economy and finances, as well as considering the EU Directive 2016/97 which regulates the level of financial competence for insurance companies employees engaged in the preparation and distribution of insurance products, as it may affect the recognition of Russian insurance market professional qualifications from abroad. On the other hand, besides the importance of consumer spending on insurance, there are too few tests among the financial literacy control and measurement tools for assessing the insurance risk and guidelines for personal insurance portfolio management. In this regard, the article aims to determine the level of financial literacy among students majoring in the field of finance and to analyze the factors contributing to its improvement. On the theoretical level, the study explores the principles of systematic education to form financial knowledge and competence. The empirical study reveals interests of students as future consumers of insurance services making their choice of insurance products on the base of their functional financial literacy. Principal methods for the study of the problem are: the theory of systems, the concept of feedback, a method of comparative analysis, and also works of Russian teachers and methodologists in the field of systematic management in education, which allows reasoning the continuous and consistent character of financial knowledge and competence. The article presents the results of theoretical analysis concerning the development of functional financial literacy among students who major in finance. It identifies the main gaps in their knowledge and competence in the field of insurance, and special features of students` interests as future consumers of insurance services. The article gives reasons for making changes in the bachelor’s training program related to insurance, as well as in the methodological guidelines for the educational process. The materials of the study are of practical value for educational institutions of higher financial education and for the executives of Russian insurance companies.

Keywords: feedback principle, professional qualification, risk assessment, financial education, academic majors

Citation: Belousova TA, Gryzenkova YV, Kirillova NV, Vasyakin BS, Pozharskaya EL. The financial literacy assessment among students majoring in the field of finance. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):141-8.

A governing and political orientation in the field of education
Aleksandr V. Grinenko, Liudmila A. Gegel, Ilya A. Poleshchuk, Dinara R. Tutaeva, Elena V. Pronina, Tatyana V. Shchukina, Eleonora V. Egorova

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Abstract

The state policy forms the scope of activities at the junction of a political and managerial orientation in the system of education. In accordance with the spheres and stakeholders, the goal is concretized in education according to a number of parameters. Education is proclaimed a priority field within the social sphere in the framework of the modern state policy of the Russian Federation. A specific character of understanding the essence of education underlies the state policy in this area of the society organization, at any stage of human development. Base interests of society, strategic needs of the relevant stage of the state’s development, expressed by political leaders and elites in the form of basic principles and strategic goals that have found appropriate public support underlie the foundation of the state policy development in the field of education. It is necessary to identify one more of the main components of state policy: the constant reform and modernization of the system of education, which is the dominant of the Russian education development throughout its history and, of course, in the period of 20th century analyzed by us. The reform of education is a complex process that is organized and controlled by the state agencies. Its necessity is recognized both at the public and at the state level.

Keywords: state policy, management, education, educational system, socio-cultural institute

Citation: Grinenko AV, Gegel LA, Poleshchuk IA, Tutaeva DR, Pronina EV, Shchukina TV, et al. A governing and political orientation in the field of education. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):149-54.

Cognitive preconditions and interaction styles between university students in the information environment
Liudmila V. Shukshina, Bogdan S. Vasyakin, Elena L. Pozharskaya, Tatyana L. Khudyakova, Olga V. Mizonova, Natalia G. Eniashina, Rina S. Khammatova

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Abstract

The question of what cognitive characteristics of a subject can be considered as cognitive strategies of interaction in the information environment is discussed in the article. Three groups of indicators related to the assessment of potential characteristics of the subject’s cognitive strategies were involved in the conducted empirical study: structural characteristics of intelligence (offered by R. Amthauer and R. Cattell, styles of thinking and assessment of the personality’s self-regulation style. As a result of the factor analysis, five main components were identified that determine the cognitive characteristics of the subject of information interaction. The first factor includes variables correlated with “mathematical” and “spatial” intelligence, that is, they are professionally significant for specialists working in the field of technology. The second factor includes the load on the variables “modeling conditions”, “programming actions” and “the result assessment”. The third factor comprises assessments on scales that are related to verbal abilities: “word exclusion” and “analogies”, as well as an assessment of general (non-verbal or “cultural-free”) intelligence. The fourth and fifth factors differ from the previous ones that they, to a greater extent, unite stylistic cognitive characteristics. The fourth factor includes “analytical”, “realistic” styles of thinking and the flexibility of self-regulation. In addition, two factors have been presented that determine cognitive interaction strategies in the information environment: a strategy with a flexible approach to searching, selecting and testing the data, and a strategy for work with information, taking account of the target and practical components.

Keywords: information environment, styles of thinking, cognitive strategies, intellectual potential, university students

Citation: Shukshina LV, Vasyakin BS, Pozharskaya EL, Khudyakova TL, Mizonova OV, Eniashina NG, et al. Cognitive preconditions and interaction styles between university students in the information environment. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):155-60.

Determination of the optimum cultivation pattern for increasing energy efficiency and reducing bioenvironmental contaminants (case study: Goharbaran Region, Sari)
Hassan Gholipour, Yaghob Zraatkish, Ali Mohammad Borghei, Hossein Bakhdha, Mohammad Ghahderijani

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Abstract

Response to the need for healthy food for the growing population, given the limited supply of energy in crop production, and considering sustainable development in production, it is necessary to plan and model a production in a region. This study was conducted with the priority of environmental protection in order to achieve sustainable cultivation of crops in the southeastern margin of the Caspian Sea between the two rivers of Nakh river and Tajan. The results of this research indicate that the current cropping pattern in the region is different with the optimal patterns in terms of cultivars, use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the volume of use of agricultural water. To optimize, each cultivar must be modified to reduce the pollution of agricultural waste that passes through the canal to the Caspian Sea. Reducing rice cultivation from 1.7 to 0.214 hectares for sustainability of production in the environmental model, increasing the cultivation of garlic in the pattern of water reduction from the results of this study. Also, by reducing the available water for agriculture by 30% of the current conditions, the rapeseed and garlic cultivation pattern is reduced by 4.5% and 26.4%, respectively.

Keywords: cultivation pattern, energy efficiency, bioenvironmental contaminants, environmental protection, pollution of agricultural

Citation: Gholipour H, Zraatkish Y, Borghei AM, Bakhdha H, Ghahderijani M. Determination of the optimum cultivation pattern for increasing energy efficiency and reducing bioenvironmental contaminants (case study: Goharbaran Region, Sari). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):161-5.

Determination of environmental consequences from production processes of motor transport enterprises
Gabit Zh. Bekbolatov, Zhadra A. Shingisbayeva, Aydarali Tulenov, Umirzhan Sh. Kokayev, Bakhtiyor I. Bazarov, Baurzhan Shoibekov

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Abstract

Environmental policy in the motor transport complex should be built taking into account the existing ecological situation in certain regions and cities of the Republic of Kazakhstan. If we compile a list of economic regions by the degree of pollution and degradation of the natural environment from the aggregate of anthropogenic impacts (emissions of harmful substances, forest damage, pollution of rivers, water shortages, pollution and soil erosion), we see that the most deplorable situation is in South Kazakhstan, East Kazakhstan, Karaganda, and Almaty economic regions. When developing measures to prevent the negative impact of cars on the environment, it is necessary to focus on the current health and environmental standards. Unfortunately, at present in Kazakhstan, these conditions are not met due to objective and subjective reasons. Meanwhile, in the road transport industries, a direct application of the UNECE Regulation, governing a number of indicators of environmental safety of vehicles, is provided. The solution of the problem (this is confirmed by the experience of foreign countries) is in the step-by-step tightening of the indicators of environmental safety of cars and real control over their observance in the conditions of the production operation. It is advisable to set regional standards (more stringent than national ones) for areas that have a high level of pollution.

Keywords: natural environment, motor transport enterprise, emissions, pollutants, harmful substances, ecology

Citation: Bekbolatov GZ, Shingisbayeva ZA, Tulenov A, Kokayev US, Bazarov BI, Shoibekov B. Determination of environmental consequences from production processes of motor transport enterprises. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):167-6.

Biological study of increasing vitellogenin level and gonado somatic index by laserpuncture exposure at any protein level of dietary on catfish broodstock (Clarias sp.)
Pungky Slamet Wisnu Kusuma, Dyah Hariani

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Abstract

This biological study aims to determine the effect of laserpuncture exposure and protein level of dietary on vitellogenin level and GSI. Three protein levels (30%, 35% and 40%) of dietary were given to the female catfish broodstock along with and without laserpuncture treatment. Laserpuncture exposure was on 2/3 ventral part of the body in 15 sec/week during 8 weeks. We used 172 of mature female catfish broodstock around 1-1.5 years old with 900-1500 grams of body weight. Blood and gonad were taken from 4 samples per treatment group in each week. Vitellogenin level was analyzed by ELISA. This study showed that laserpuncture exposure along with any protein levels of dietary, significantly increases vitellogenin level (P<0.001) and GSI number (P<0.05). Laserpuncture exposure and 30% protein dietary treatment at third week are most effective to increase vitellogenin level and GSI. It suggested that laserpuncture exposure along with 30% protein level of dietary accelerates gonad maturation 3 weeks faster.

Keywords: Catfish, helium-neon laserpuncture, protein level, vitellogenin

Citation: Wisnu Kusuma PS, Hariani D. Biological study of increasing vitellogenin level and gonado somatic index by laserpuncture exposure at any protein level of dietary on catfish broodstock (Clarias sp.). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):177-83.

Histopathology of Spodoptera Litura larva infected by Multiple Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus (SpltMNPV) in photo-protectant formulation
Mahanani Tri Asri

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Abstract

Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus (SpltMNPV) is a viral pathogen with the potential to control Spodoptera litura pests. The virus is effective in controlling S. litura, with mortality of 80–90%. Histopathologic preparations were made over the course of two ways using paraffin with hematoxylin-eosin staining and IHC methods. SpltMNPV was detected in S. litura and histopathologically characterized by the existence of polyhedral inclusion bodies of adistinctive color (dark brown), which had spread throughout the midgut lumen and epithelium. Tissues and organs were infected by SpltMNPV in vitro in a photo-protectant formula with incubation times of 0, 1, 2 and 3 days, using the paraffin method. Virus infected the lumen, midgut epithelium, epithelial skin, trachea, blood vessels, muscle cells and Malpighian tubules but not the cuticle or nerve cells. In addition, IHC revealed no SpltMNPV in muscle cells.

Keywords: Immunohistochemistry, Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus (SpltMNPV) (SpltMNPV), Photo-protectant

Citation: Asri MT. Histopathology of Spodoptera Litura larva infected by Multiple Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus (SpltMNPV) in photo-protectant formulation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):185-91.

Physiological study of the use of bull seminal plasma in skim milk diluent to improve quality of frozen ram semen
Suherni Susilowati, Wurlina, I Dewa Putu Anom Adnyana, Imam Mustofa, Mas’ud Hariadi

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Abstract

Ram semen freezing process still generates poor outcome due to phospholipase. Thus, an alternative to substitute ram seminal plasma is recently developed using bull seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits of bull seminal plasma added by ram spermatozoa diluent in the freezing process. This study used control treatment (P0); (P1) was (diluent + ram semen) + bull seminal plasma (1: 1); (P2) was (diluent + ram semen) + bull seminal plasma (1:2). The result showed that P1 generated the highest viability, motility, plasma membrane intact, and the lowest DNA fragmentation, compared to second treatment and control. Statistical analysis of viability, motility, plasma membrane intact and DNA fragmentation were significantly different (p<0.05) among treatments. It can be concluded that additional of seminal plasma of bull can maintain motility, viability, plasma membrane intact and decrease the of DNA fragmentation in ram spermatozoa after-thawing.

Keywords: after-thawing, bull seminal plasma, DNA fragmentation of spermatozoa, ram semen, freezing process

Citation: Susilowati S, Wurlina, Anom Adnyana IDP, Mustofa I, Hariadi M. Physiological study of the use of bull seminal plasma in skim milk diluent to improve quality of frozen ram semen. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):193-7.

Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation
Halifah Pagarra, Roshanida A. Rahman, Rachmawaty

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Abstract

The substrate plays an important role in solid state fermentation (SSF) in the production of exo-polygalacturonase (one type of the pectinase enzymes). The aim of this study was to investigate a pretreatment method on Nephrolepis biserrata leaves as a substrate for the production of exo-polygalacturonase. The pretreatment steps improved the decomposition of the lignocellulosic material in the structure of N. biserrata leaves as a substrate and allowed Aspergillus niger better access of the substrate to the enzymatic reaction. This optimised both exo-polygalacturonase activity and the growth of A. niger in SSF. Pretreatment was performed under alkali, acidic, autohydrolytic and control conditions. The highest exo-polygalacturonase activity was 39.16 U/g and biomass of A. niger was 0.39 mg/gdsf at 120 h was found for the autohydrolysis pretreatment, as compared to alkali pretreatment, acid pretreatment and control. Scanning electron microscope images showed a marked change in the physical appearance of treated N. biserrata leaves as compared to untreated N. biserrata leaves, especially following autohydrolysis pretreatment.

Keywords: pretreatment, Nephrolepis biserrata leaves, exo-polygalacturonase, Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, SEM

Citation: Pagarra H, Rahman RA, Rachmawaty. Biochemical study of the effect of Nephrolepis biserrata pretreatment on exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergilllus niger in solid state fermentation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):199-206.

Environmental analysis of Smart Sago (SS) product marketing strategy
Sofyan Samad, Abd Wahab Hasyim

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Abstract

This environmental study aimed to characterize alternative strategies for marketing of the smart sago (SS) product by observing the implementation of marketing, segmenting and targeting, and positioning strategies using a SWOT analysis. Data were collected through observation, interview, and documentation, and analyzed with data reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The strategy applied was to segment the market for SS in terms of people commonly divided in regions in North Maluku with an average age between 30 and 60 years old. The positioning of the product was focused on the development of the SS product that makes it distinct in terms of flavor and smell, and creation of a high-quality product. The development of smart sago is seen as the appropriate approach due to the fact that the business unit will encounter many environmental opportunities and has the strengths to use those opportunities to its advantage.

Keywords: marketing strategy analysis, product development, smart sago, high-quality product

Citation: Samad S, Hasyim AW. Environmental analysis of Smart Sago (SS) product marketing strategy. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):207-11.

Effect of walnut (Canarium vulgare L.) provisioning on white rat biology
Meitycorfrida Mailoa, Tri D. Widyaningsih, Widya D. R. Putri, Harijono

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Abstract

Several indicators can be used to discover whether a food is a source of high-quality protein. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is a food protein quality measure defined by the protein’s ability to generate growth of white rats. This study aimed to analyze the protein quality from fresh walnuts and dried walnuts (Canarium vulgare L.) as measured by the growth of white rats. Male Wistar strain white rats (Rattus novergicus Berkenhout) as the animal model. Three groups of newly weaned white rats (21 days old), which had been adapted for 4 days so they had the relatively average of weight (50.22 to 53.97 g) were used. Each group contained four individuals and they were fed different feeds, i.e., normal AIN coupled with 9% casein, normal AIN coupled with 1.8% fresh walnuts and normal AIN coupled with 1.8% dried roasted walnuts. Rat weights were measured every 2 days and feed consumption measured every day, for 28 days. Tukey’s HSD Test was used to compare treatments. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the PER treatment of AIN feed coupled with dried roasted walnuts (PER: 2.58) compared with AIN coupled with fresh walnuts treatment (PER : 2.54) and AIN added with casein (PER : 2.52), but those three treatments showed a higher PER value than the standard (2.50). Fresh walnuts or dried walnuts have PER value beyond the standard; thus walnuts can be categorized as a source of quality protein.

Keywords:

Citation: Mailoa M, Widyaningsih TD, Putri WDR, Harijono. Effect of walnut (Canarium vulgare L.) provisioning on white rat biology. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):213-7.

Biological study of Piper crocatum leaves ethanol extract improving the skin histopathology of wistar rat wound infected by Staphylococcus aureus
Wurlina, Dewa Ketut Meles, I Dewa Putu Anom Adnyana, Rochiman Sasmita, Cempaka Putri

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Abstract

The wound is a continuous damage on mucosal membrane or bone and another organ which cause a traumatic effect. This biological study aim was to investigate the effect of red betel leaves ethanol extract (Piper crocatum) to the skin histopathology of Wistar rat infected by Staphylococcus aureus. The experimental research used Randomized Post Test. Wistar male rats were divided into 5 group: P0 (control), P1 (Povidone iodine), P2 (50% of P. crocatum leaves extract), P3 (25% of P. crocatum leaves extract), and P4 (12.5% of P. crocatum leaves extract). The number of neutrophils, macrophage, fibroblast, and angiogenesis were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD. Collagen density was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. This study proved that P4 group (12.5% of P. crocatum leaves extract) improved the skin histopathology of rat wound infected by S. aureus.

Keywords: angiogenesis, collagen, fibroblast, macrophage, neutrophil, red betel

Citation: Wurlina, Meles DK, Anom Adnyana IDP, Sasmita R, Putri C. Biological study of Piper crocatum leaves ethanol extract improving the skin histopathology of wistar rat wound infected by Staphylococcus aureus. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):219-21.

Molecular cloning and expression of levansucrase gene from Bacillus licheniformis BK1 isolated from Bledug Kuwu Mud Crater
Nur Umriani Permatasari, Enny Ratnaningsih, Rukman Hertadi

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Abstract

Halophilic bacteria are halotolerant microorganisms commonly found in natural environments containing high NaCl concentration. Bacillus licheniformis BK1 is a moderate halophilic bacterium isolated from Bledug Kuwu mud crater, Central Java, Indonesia. This bacterium optimally grows in LB medium containing 15% (w/v) NaCl, and known to produce levansucrase. The levansucrase gene from this bacterium has been successfully isolated and sequence (accession number MF774877.1). The obtained pET-lsbl-bk1 recombinant clone was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and overexpressed by IPTG induction. The obtained Lsbl-bk1 levansucrase recombinant in the supernatant has a specific activity of 545.678 U/mg protein, in which the unit is defined as μmol of glucose released per minute in sucrose containing medium. This activity is 74% higher compared to those from B. licheniformis BK1 wild type. On the other hand, the cell lysate only showed an increase of 46%. The nucleotide sequence of lsbl-bk1 gene indicated that the open reading frame consists of 1,452 bases encoding 483 amino acid residues of Lsbl-bk1 protein with a cleaved signal peptide between Ala29 and Lys30. This protein is predicted as a member of glycoside hydrolase family, a typical for levansucrase. In addition, three conserved residues of the predicted catalytic triad were identified to be Asp93, Asp256, Glu352.

Keywords: levansucrase, Bacillus licheniformis BK1, halophilic, glycoside hydrolase

Citation: Permatasari NU, Ratnaningsih E, Hertadi R. Molecular cloning and expression of levansucrase gene from Bacillus licheniformis BK1 isolated from Bledug Kuwu Mud Crater. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):223-0.

Fresh and roasted Canarium nut (Canarium vulgare) altering the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Meitycorfrida Mailoa, Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih, Widya Dwi Rukmi Putri, Harijono

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Abstract

Hypercholesterolemia is a disorder of cholesterol metabolism, caused by cholesterol level in the blood exceeding the normal limit. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fresh and roasted canarium nut treatment (Canarium vulgare L.) on lowering cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride levels, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and repairing aortic tissue histopathology. This study used 24 male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). The experimental animals were treated with induced hypercholesterolemia for 9 weeks. The treatment was conducted for 4 weeks, with the provision of 0.9, 1.8 or2.7 g fresh and roasted canarium nut. The design used in this study was a completely randomized design (CRD) followed by Tukey test on treatments which differed significantly. Fresh and roasted canarium nut treatment reduced cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL in hypercholesterolemic rats. Fresh and roasted canarium nut treatment reduced endothelial damage in aortic histopathology. Fresh canarium nut therapy and roasted canarium nut treatment show potential in curing hypercholesterolemia and minimizing endothelial dysfunction.

Keywords: Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides, Histopathology

Citation: Mailoa M, Widyaningsih TD, Rukmi Putri WD, Harijono. Fresh and roasted Canarium nut (Canarium vulgare) altering the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats (Rattus norvegicus). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):231-8.

Livestock ecology research on institution and traditional sharing systems in cattle farms
Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Hastang, Veronica Sri Lestari, Rosmawaty

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Abstract

The present research aimed to analysis differences between the traditional profit share system and institution profit share system in cattle farms. The research was conducted from February to March 2018 in the Maiwa Sub-district, Enrekang District by using quantitative and descriptive methods. The types of data were qualitative and quantitative from both primary and secondary sources, and the data analysis used was the frequency distribution and income analysis. The results show that characteristics of the respondents in the traditional system and the institution system are similar regarding age and livestock experience, but show differences in educational attainment, a number of family members, and the commercial scale. Beef cattle farmers who follow the system of partnerships with the institution profit share system are mainly at secondary level (45.4%), while beef cattle farmers who follow a traditional profit share system are also mainly at the secondary level (46.8%). Farmers who followed the institution system had higher incomes compared to those in the traditional system of revenue sharing of pastoralists. The traditional sharing system does not involve a contract while the institution sharing system uses a contract. The institution sharing system, therefore, provided more significant benefit to farmers.

Keywords: age, beef cattle, farmer revenue, livestock experience, livestock ecology, profit

Citation: Sirajuddin SN, Hastang, Sri Lestari V, Rosmawaty. Livestock ecology research on institution and traditional sharing systems in cattle farms. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):239-44.

Effect of Magneto-priming by tryptophan and ascorbic acid on germination attributes of barley (Hordeum vulgare, L.) under salinity stress
M. Hozayn, Abeer A. Ahmed

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Abstract

The present study investigated whether magneto-priming with tryptophan or ascorbic acid could alter the responses of barley seeds germinated under water salinity levels (2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000ppm). Magnetic seeds were irrigated by solutions containing tryptophan or ascorbic acid. Non-priming seeds were taken as control. Seed germination (%), germination index (GI), germination speed index (SGI), germination rate (GR, day), mean germination rate (MGR, day),seedling shoot length (cm), seedling root length (cm), seedling length (cm),seedling fresh weight (g), seedling dry weights, (g) seedling vigor 1 (SV1) and seedling vigor 2 (SV2) as affected by magneto-priming treatments were studied. Data showed that germination characters improved with magneto- priming treatments under different salinity levels. Tryptophan and ascorbic acid as magneto-priming gave higher values as to seed germination and seed vigour under different salinity levels. It also significantly increased some activities of enzymes, peroxidase, Polyphenoloxidase and chitinase. During seedling growth under salinity conditions, the primed seeds significantly increased accumulation enzymes with salinity levels until 6000ppm after that it was decreased. This suggests that magneto priming seed with at a suitable concentration can improve germination and seedling growth under high-saline soils.

Keywords: magnetic field, tryptophan, ascorbic acid, salinity stress, germination, enzymes, barley

Citation: Hozayn M, Ahmed AA. Effect of Magneto-priming by tryptophan and ascorbic acid on germination attributes of barley (Hordeum vulgare, L.) under salinity stress. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):245-1.

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein Taq1B gene polymorphism in some Iraqi patients with lipid disorders
Adnan F. AL-Azzawie, Rafea Zaidan Al-sugmiany, Nadia A. Salih

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Abstract

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) Taq 1 B polymorphism (rs708272) effect on CETP concentration that has a major role in the lipoproteins metabolism and subsequently lipid profile. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association between CETP Taq1B polymorphism and lipid disorders among Iraqi patients. Hundred and thirty subjects, 80 patients with lipid disorders and 50 healthy age ranged from 25 to 60 years were recruited by private clinic from Iraqi population. Blood samples were collected and used to separate serum that was used to measure lipid concentrations by enzymatic assays and to extract the DNA that was used to detect CETP Taq1B polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RELP). Results showed statistically increase (p <0.01) in lipid profile concentrations and highly significant differences (p< 0.01) of alleles and genotypes frequency in patients group compared to controls. Patients with B1B1genotype showed a higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels but not significantly and statistically increase (p <0.01) in low lipoprotein density cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared with B1B2 and B2B2. We suggest that CETP Taq1 B polymorphism was significant association with Iraqi patients with lipid disorders compared to controls. The genotype B1B1 and B1 allele can be considered as a marker of genetic predisposition to lower HDL-C levels and higher TC and TG levels in the Iraqi population and lead to increased susceptibility of the cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Taq1B gene polymorphism, lipid disorders

Citation: AL-Azzawie AF, Al-sugmiany RZ, Salih NA. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein Taq1B gene polymorphism in some Iraqi patients with lipid disorders. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):253-8.

Studying effective factors on executing and applying biogas energy from viewpoint of experts of Ministry of Agriculture of Iran
Sakineh Joveini, Azita Zand, Sahar Dehyouri, Mohammad Mohammadi

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Abstract

Meeting energy requirements in rural and deprived areas is one of the most fundamental problems of all countries of world specially developing countries and even in a country like Iran that has enriched resources of energy, meeting this energy is very problematic and expensive; thus, the most appropriate solution for this problem is applying renewable energies including: Biogas. The present research from viewpoint of type of research is classified as applied research and from viewpoint of method is classified as descriptive-correlation research. Statistical society of this relation is 150 experts of Ministry of Agriculture that are working in relation to biomass energy and sampling method is based on census. In the way of politicizing effective economic factors for application of biomass is a budget is anticipated for advertisement and introducing biomass energy, prioritizing social factors, good and effective communication with other similar companies, prioritizing of educational factors, holding related exhibitions for native biogas energy, prioritizing of managerial factors, increasing awareness of directors from advantages of biomass energy, prioritizing factors facilitating trust of policy makers for executing biomass energy plans. Studying Spearman correlation for 2 variables of level of awareness and recognition of people shows that there is positive-significant relationship between aforesaid 2 variables. Moreover, results of simple regression shows that the variable of policy making factor nearly 32%, economic factor nearly 32%, social factor nearly 45%, educational factor nearly 33%, managerial factor nearly 25%, facilitating factor nearly 27%, impediments and limitations for application of biomass energy nearly 33% describes the changes of dependent variable to application of biomass energy.

Keywords: effective mechanism, application, biogas, Ministry of Agriculture

Citation: Joveini S, Zand A, Dehyouri S, Mohammadi M. Studying effective factors on executing and applying biogas energy from viewpoint of experts of Ministry of Agriculture of Iran. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):259-66.

Microbial selection of indigenous phosphate solubilizing microbe of tidal land as an inoculant in biochar
Nurul Husna, Dedik Budianta, Munandar, Adipati Napoleon

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Abstract

This study was aimed to obtain phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM) isolates, which can be tolerant high Al and Fe content and low pH, to be utilized as an inoculant in biochar. Microbial isolation of indigenous PSMs was carried out on intertidal zone, with samples from four typological landscape (A, B, C, and D) collected from four villages in Delta Telang, Banyuasin, South Sumatra. The isolates that produced clear zones were purified and assayed with varying levels of AlPO4, FePO4, and pH. The selected PSM isolate was further tested to evaluate the phosphate-dissolving ability with liquid Pikovskaya media. The microbes obtained were three bacterial isolates and one phosphate-solubilizing fungus, which were identified as Paenibacillus alvei, Burkholderia cepacia, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Penicillium variabile. The identified microbes were tolerant to Al and Fe at concentrations up to 1500 mg L-1 and pH 3.0. Mixed cultures of the four isolates on liquid Pikovskaya media were able to dissolve Ca3(PO4)2 at 57.45 mg L-1, AlPO4 at 13.98 mg L-1 and FePO4 at 8.46 mg L-1. PSM viability on four types of biochar after three months of storage ranged from log population of 1.57 x 108–1.73 x 109 (log population 8.20–10.23 CFU g-1). The highest PSM viability was obtained in coconut shell biochar.

Keywords: biochar, phosphate-solubilizing microbe, Tidal Wetland, tolerant

Citation: Husna N, Budianta D, Munandar, Napoleon A. Microbial selection of indigenous phosphate solubilizing microbe of tidal land as an inoculant in biochar. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):267-6.

Improving the quality of brewing malt with the use of ion-ozone explosive cavitation
Saida M. Shintassova, Gulgaisha I. Baigazieva, Tatyana F. Kiseleva, Gulshat T. Uvakasova, Eric B. Askarbekov

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Currently, a large amount of barley grain of different quality is supplied to malting plants. The use of non-compliant grains leads to a reduction in malt quality. The aim of the study is to improve the process of malting barley and improve the quality of malt through exposure to ion-ozone explosive cavitation processes. The optimal ozone concentration of 2 mg/m3, ions of 500±20 u/cm3, cavitation of 2 at and treatment time of 5 minutes were determined. The positive effect of ion-ozone explosive cavitation in the recommended concentration on malt quality indicators is shown. The estimated method of processing allows to reduce the protein content of malt by 1.64%, to increase the extract content by 0.38%, amylolytic activity by 76.9%, diastatic force by 75.2% relative to the control. The effect of barley contamination on the color and transparency of the wort has been established. Mathematical processing of experimental data showed an increase in the ability of germination as the concentration of the ion-ozone mixture decreases and the percentage of the swelling ability. The resulting malt has high quality and technological parameters. This is important because the quality of barley is of great importance not only for the malting, but also for the brewing industry as a whole. Ion-ozone explosive cavitation as an innovative approach allows to solve the problems of grain with unstable indicators of quality and opens up new prospects for its use in enterprises for the storage and processing of grain.

Keywords: barley, malt, ion, ozone, explosive cavitation

Citation: Shintassova SM, Baigazieva GI, Kiseleva TF, Uvakasova GT, Askarbekov EB. Improving the quality of brewing malt with the use of ion-ozone explosive cavitation. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):277-86.

Use of cryptochrom for the expression of succinate dehydrogenase genes in corn leaf
Maha E. Jasim, Khanaaa B. Fadhil, Alyaa S. Jawad

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Corn is one of the most important cereals in Iran. Which has a high importance in the quality of nutrition and high consumption of industrial products, and is a worldwide strategic product. This research was carried out in 2018 in the laboratory of Samarra university to investigate the expression of suction dehydrogenase genes in corn leaf using copiquorum. The results indicated that blue light prevents the activity of succinate dehydrogenase and thus prevents the gene expression of green leafy corn. Irradiation with light blue to corn plants leads to a reduction in the unstable transcription of the encoded genes of Sdh1-2 and Sdh2-3 and mutually reduces the encoded protein of the fluoroprotein and coded protein of iron-sulfur. The effect of light blue is probably due to the transcription factors COP1 and HY5, and the second is increased by light blue treatment. This has been associated with a decrease in the expression of COP1, and probably contributes to HY5 protease decomposition. It also proves that calcium ions do not participate in this process.

Keywords: corn grain, dehydrogenase dehydrogenase, cryptochrom, blue light, gene expression

Citation: Jasim ME, Fadhil KB, Jawad AS. Use of cryptochrom for the expression of succinate dehydrogenase genes in corn leaf. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):287-91.

Food safety control of halloumi type cheese production
Zarina Kapshakbayeva, Aleksandr Mayorov, Zhanar Moldabayeva, Gulmira Mirasheva, Asiya Utegenova, Galiya Imankulova, Alem Beysembayeva

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In food production, the main criteria are quality and safety. The article presents the results of the adaptation of the elements of HACCP, FTA and FMEA analyzes to the production of semi-hard cheese of Halloumi type made from goat milk. A description of the object of research is also conducted - semi-solid cheese of the Halloumi type of cheese according to the following indicators: ingredient composition, physical and chemical properties, safety standards. The purpose of this work is to identify the critical control points and to analyze the existing risk factors characteristic of the process of producing cheese like Halloumi. The control system of halloumi cheese safety based on the concepts of HACCP. The main risk factors and critical control points have been identified during the production of halloumi cheese. The combination of widely used FTA and FMEA methods highlighted the potential hazards and the ways to prevent them. The elements of HACCP, FTA and FMEA analysis adapted to the production of halloumi cheese from goat milk. For prevention of production of low quality cheese a technological flowchart of cheese production has been developed. The algorithm for determining critical control points is determined by the Decision Tree method. According to conducted research four critical control points during the production of halloumi type cheese determined. The results revealed that there were 11 risks from 8 steps of the production process. The total value of the priority number of the risk of production of Halloumi type cheese is equal to 66. The FTA analysis showed six reasons of defect risks and ways of solution. Application of food safety control systems guarantee the production of safe, high quality cheese by all-round control of processing line.

Keywords: halloumi, risk, hazard, safety, quality, HACCP, FTA and FMEA analyzes

Citation: Kapshakbayeva Z, Mayorov A, Moldabayeva Z, Mirasheva G, Utegenova A, Imankulova G, et al. Food safety control of halloumi type cheese production. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):293-01.

Biochemical study of amino acid profile of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria salicornia seaweeds from Gerupuk Waters, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB)
S. Y. Lumbessy, S. Andayani, H. Nursyam, M. Firdaus

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Abstract

This study aimed to analyze the amino acid profile of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria salicornia seaweeds from Gerupuk Waters, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB). Samples were collected in January using a transect method, then dried and ground to powder to determine the amino acid content. Amino acid analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An amino acid standard curve was used to calculate amino acid content of each sample. The results of the analysis showed that there were 15 amino acids present in K. alvarezii seaweed, consisting of seven essential amino acids and eight non-essential amino acids. Meanwhile, G. salicornia seaweed contained 13 amino acids, consisting of seven essential amino acids and six non-essential amino acids. In K. alvarezii, the amino acid with the highest level was glutamate (13.73%), while in G. salicornia, the amino acid with the highest level was serine (13.02%).The results of the nutritional evaluation indicate that lysine is a limiting amino acid in K. alvarezii seaweed and methionine is a limiting amino acid in G. salicornia seaweed.

Keywords: amino acid, Gracilaria salicornia, Gerupuk Waters, Kappaphycus alvarezii, seaweed

Citation: Lumbessy SY, Andayani S, Nursyam H, Firdaus M. Biochemical study of amino acid profile of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria salicornia seaweeds from Gerupuk Waters, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):303-7.

Determination of congenital cytomegalovirus infection and virus genotypes in newborn urine samples
Tariq M. Quasim, Abdel Wahab A R. Alshaikhly

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Abstract

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection may cause significant clinical consequences in newborns, not only at birth, but also later as neurological sequelae. It is very important to establish a strategy for rapid and accurate screening of congenital CMV infections for determining the risk factors that may threaten the newborns life. To our knowledge most of the previous studies of a CMV infection in Iraq have been based on serological and immunological tests. Our current study is one of the few molecular studies focused on the molecular diagnosis of the virus and determination of the dominant viral genotype in Baghdad province. n the recent study active CMV infection was detected in 24 samples (12%) in real time PCR with significant Ct value <35. Amplicons sequencing was indicated about twelve out of 20 (60%) recipients had CMVGT2 (gB2) genotype; 6 out of 20 (30%), recipients had CMVGT4 (gB4); 2 out of 20(10%), CMVGT1 (gB1). Our finding indicated that the most frequent genotypes were gB2 followed by GB4. Real time PCR assay was very accurate, rapid, and sensitive method of CMV early diagnosis, also M-nPCR and sequencing was a specific assay for CMVGT genotyping.

Keywords: congenital cytomegalovirus infection, human cytomegalovirus, sensor neural hearing loss, neonatal screening

Citation: Quasim TM, Alshaikhly AWAR. Determination of congenital cytomegalovirus infection and virus genotypes in newborn urine samples. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):309-13.

Operator model to control process of obtaining vermicompost
Evgeny V. Kuznetsov, Anna E. Khadzhidi, Yan A. Poltorak, Margarita Kuznetsova

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Abstract

Currently, in the Russian Federation, the amount of contaminated agricultural land is about 2.4 million hectares. The economic damage resulting from the violation of regulations related to the use of bedding manure in animal husbandry is estimated at an average of 150–170 million rubles/year. For the sustainable development of agrolandscapes, integrated biotechnologies should be developed that can fully process the agricultural waste into organic safe fertilizers throughout a year. A technology has been developed for the production of complex fertilizers by mixing waste, and turning it into an organic fertilizer. Integrated biotechnology provides a consistent mixing of pig waste, alcohol production and organic residues in the form of winter crops. It provides processing of the solid phase of pig manure, which is the main component of the liquid fraction of alcohol waste (bard), providing the process of maintaining the moisture content of the substrate and winter wheat straw. The result of complex biotechnology is biohumus (biocompost), obtained from pig pig compost and fugata. A red Californian worm is used as a compost processor in the biocompost. The physicochemical composition of the solid fraction of pig manure and irrigation water has been investigated for the composting process. It is established that components of the technology contains a high level of nutrients, especially macroelements, and do not contain hazardous substances for the nutrition of worms. Therefore, the development of integrated biotechnology is based on processes and parameters of accelerated waste processing and their utilization in the form of organic bio-fertilizers. An operator model has been created to control the process of obtaining vermicompost, , which is based on technological lines for processing waste into organic fertilizers, and their utilization to improve the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. The operator model allows us to manage biocomposing on production lines, each of which completes the process and the output is a complete product to use. On the main line, the organic fertilizer comes ready for utilization on agricultural landscapes. To increase the fertility of agricultural land, additional income from biocomposting is necessary.

Keywords: biotechnology, vermicompost, operating model, land fertility, waste disposal

Citation: Kuznetsov EV, Khadzhidi AE, Poltorak YA, Kuznetsova M. Operator model to control process of obtaining vermicompost. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):315-21.

Eco-friendly flame retardant additives for epoxy resin nanocomposites
Nguyen Tuan Anh, Nguyen Quang Tung, Nguyen Xuan Canh, Nguyen Van Hoan

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Abstract

Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals used as additives in a wide range of products to inhibit, suppress, or delay ignition and to prevent the spread of fire. We have developed a flame-retardant epoxy resin whose flame retardancy is greatly enhanced by adding fly ash (a by-product from thermal power plants). Applying the fly ash eliminates the need to use current retardants such as organic halogen compounds and thus promotes the perceived environmental safety of flame retardant epoxy resin. Some commercial additives used today are hazardous to humans and the environment, and their extensive application is limited by their negative effects on polymer mechanical properties. Accordingly, identifying materials that are environmentally friendly and harmless to humans has become urgent need. Some alternative additives that are gaining research interest are clay and fly ash, which are natural and recyclable resources that can enhance the FR properties of other polymers. However, room for improvement is always present as the related technology is continually being developed. This review focuses on studies aiming to enhance the flame retardancy of epoxy resin using eco-friendly additives (Fly ash, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube, nanoclay). Fly ash have been demonstrated to act as an effective/synergistic co-additive in some FR applications and could thereby contribute to reducing the loading of FRs in products and improving their performance. Flame retardant additives of Fly ash were embedded in epoxy resin-Fly ash to improve the resin’s resistance to oxidation.

Keywords: epoxy Epikote 240, flame retardant, fly ash, limiting oxygen index

Citation: Anh NT, Tung NQ, Canh NX, Hoan NV. Eco-friendly flame retardant additives for epoxy resin nanocomposites. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):323-2.

Development new multiplex reverse transcription quantitative real time polymerase reaction to detect human norovirus genogroups I and II
Nadira Salman Mohamed, Shaymaa Naji Dahham, Mohammed Nadhir Maaroof

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Abstract

Norovirus (NV) is considering a highly contagious virus due to the increase in the number of cases of the virus in recent years. Therefore, there is a need to develop rapid, specific and sensitive molecular detection and diagnosis methods. Using the data from the National Center of Bioinformatics Information (NCBI), the sequence of more than 1000 Norovirus genogroupII genome and 39 genome of geno group I were chosen to select a common conserve region for all genotypes within the first group and the second group suitable for the design of primers and probes. The design of the first area of the junction of Open Reading Frame one (ORF) and the open reading frame two (ORF2), and the primers and probes were tested on samples of compared to the primers and using one step reverse transcription real time PCR. The kit designed for multiplex reverse reaction possess no overlap or interaction in the components of primers and probes of the two genogroups, also it is superior on the monoplex mixture of the previous kit, Norovirus being diagnosed in 45% of samples by primers and probes designed in this study, 10% of the samples were belong to the genogroupI and 35% of the samples belong to the genogroupII in comparing with virus results that tested with monoplex previous primers and probes accounted 44% , the genogroupI represented 10% and genogroupII II represented 34% of the tested samples. The use of the multiplex kit contributes to shortening the time and the largest number of samples and reduce amount of the solutions used, more than the monoplex reaction, as it should be performed separately for each genetic group.

Keywords: norovirus, genotypes, primer, probe, multiplex RT-Rpcr

Citation: Mohamed NS, Dahham SN, Maaroof MN. Development new multiplex reverse transcription quantitative real time polymerase reaction to detect human norovirus genogroups I and II. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):333-9.

Justification parameters of the ripper tooth of combined unit for minimum tillage
B. Kalimbetov, B. Kalymbetov, G. Kenzhibayeva, D. Karmanov, A. Tukhtakuziyev, B. Kablan

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Abstract

The article presents the results of theoretical studies to justify parameters and the angle of entry into the soil of ripper tooth, width and length of the working surface of the ripper tooth of combined unit. Graphs of changes in the working surface length of the ripper tooth depending on the angle of entry of the tooth into the soil at different values of tillage depth and width of combined soil-cultivating unit for minimum tillage, to ensure high-quality loosening of the soil at minimum energy consumption. Based on the results of theoretical and experimental studies, a scheme for placing working bodies on the frame of a combined soil-cultivating unit for minimal tillage has been developed, which contributes to increasing soil fertility with minimal energy and labor costs.

Keywords: combined unit for minimum tillage, ripper tooth, angle of entry into the soil, width, length of the working surface of the ripper tooth, changes in the length of the working surface of the ripper tooth, depending on the angle of entry, depth and width of the tillage of combined unit, scheme of the working bodies

Citation: Kalimbetov B, Kalymbetov B, Kenzhibayeva G, Karmanov D, Tukhtakuziyev A, Kablan B. Justification parameters of the ripper tooth of combined unit for minimum tillage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):341-7.

Compilation and revision of the laws and regulations of protected areas in accordance with international conventions and obligations
Atefeh Mahdi, Dariush Karimi, Parvin Farshchi, Mostafa Panahi

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Abstract

Iran is a country with a rich diversity and unique biodiversity. But the importance of protecting biodiversity, both in terms of animal life and plant life, is not well understood and considered by governments and organizations that are involved with it, as it is worthwhile. For this reason, the destruction process has begun in the distant past and over the past decades, and its biodiversity has been severely endangered. It should be noted that the quaternary areas (National Park, Protected Areas, National Natural Reserve, and Wildlife Refuge) are considered among the most valuable natural heritage of the country, according to accepted standards among all nations of the world. In recent decades, the reflection of the perceived suspicion of the responsible authorities about the irreparable and multi-faceted values of these regions has provoked a lot of disregard for their protection and even jeopardized their existence and survival. Studies show that the protected patterns, along with the intensification of the destruction process throughout the country, and the weakness of the environmental protection agency in the management, control and monitoring of destructive human activities, on the other hand, have greatly changed, and as a result of significant features and values, In recent decades, they have gradually lost their indissoluble assets and have gradually moved away from their desirable past. According to the research, there are certain rules and criteria for protecting protected areas in international and domestic law, and most of the legal and national standards for protecting areas are in line with international standards. However, there is also a need for review, because increasing compliance with legal rules and national obligations with international rules and regulations will make it more effective to protected areas. In this descriptive-analytical study, we will try to review and revise the laws and regulations of protected areas according to international conventions and obligations.

Keywords: convention, obligations, international, national, review, protected areas

Citation: Mahdi A, Karimi D, Farshchi P, Panahi M. Compilation and revision of the laws and regulations of protected areas in accordance with international conventions and obligations. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):349-57.

The evaluation of oxidative stress in vitiligo patients in kerbala province before and after the treatment with vitamin E
Mohammed Talat Abbas, Zeyad Tarek Habeeb

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Abstract

The main objective of this trial is to estimate the level of MDA and evaluate the effectiveness of total antioxidants in vitiligo patients and in addition to find out whether vitamin E has a role in prevention or treatment in the treatment of vitiligo. The duration of the study lasted for two months and was conducted in the city of Karbala and in Al-Husseini Hospital, the study was conducted on 25 patients with vitiligo disease and some biochemical tests were measured in serum patients before and after treatment with vitamin E. The number of volunteers for a healthy group was 25. In this trial, there was a significant reduction in the effectiveness of antioxidants and a significant elevate in MDA levels in vitiligo as compare to group of normal or healthy group, but this elevate in MDA begin to decline and at the same time start the effectiveness of antioxidants rise after treatment with vitamin A.It has been concluded that vitamin E acts as a potent anti-oxidant and it is possible and likely to reduce oxidetive stres which is amajor cause of vitilgo.

Keywords: Vitiligo, Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity

Citation: Abbas MT, Habeeb ZT. The evaluation of oxidative stress in vitiligo patients in kerbala province before and after the treatment with vitamin E. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):359-61.

Technical efficiency evaluation of tuna fishing biology using stochastic frontier production function
Anthon Efani, Soemarno, Sahri Muhammad, Nuhfil Hanani

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Abstract

Many studies have been conducted and developed about the allocation of tuna’s resource and productivity. This research is done to analyze the best stochastic frontier production function model and evaluate technical efficiency of tuna fishing based on the kind of armada using frontier production function approach. This research was conducted in Sendang Biru, Malang District, Indonesia, involving 54 boats and 25 payang armadas. Research data was obtained from the related agency. Translog and Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production functions were then compared to obtain the best function. Technical efficiency was analyzed statistically based on the determined parameters. The result shows that stochastic frontier production function in Cobb-Douglas is the most accurate function for evaluating tuna fishing’s technical efficiency. Tuna fishing’s technical efficiency at boat armada is higher than payang armada based on several factors. Based on this research, it’s acknowledged that main things influencing the technical efficiency are ship captain’s experience and investment.

Keywords: fish biology, Cobb-Douglas, stochastic frontier, technical efficiency, translog, tuna fishing

Citation: Efani A, Soemarno, Muhammad S, Hanani N. Technical efficiency evaluation of tuna fishing biology using stochastic frontier production function. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):363-8.

Enhancement in germination, seedling attributes and yields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) under salinity stress using static magnetic field treatments
M. Hozayn, Abeer A. Ahmed, A. A. El-Saady, A. A. Abd-Elmonem

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Abstract

Laboratory and field experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Technology Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, and at the private Farming (Osma Green Farming), Kilometer102, Desert Road of Cairo – Ismailia, Egypt, respectively. The study aims to explore the role of magnetic water technology for amelioration salinity stress on germination traits and forage yield of alfalfa irrigated with brackish and magnetic brackish water. Laboratory results showed that application of magneto hydro-priming seeds under different salinity stress levels (control, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 ppm) enhance germination traits, seedling growth and vigor characteristics compared to untreated seeds under corresponding salinity levels. The improvement ranged between 4.17-5.77% in seed germination (%), 9.80-51.80% in germination speed index (GSI), 3.15-17.50, 3.00-12.43 and 6.42-14.33% in seedling shoot, root and length, respectively. Similar trends were reported in fresh and dry weight of seedling where were the heaviest by 1.02-12.11 and 8.33-12.50%, respectively. Application of magnetic technology for seeds and/or brackish water under field conditions decreased clearly salinity stress due to leaching the most dominant soluble salts (i.e., Na) away from the spread of hairy roots and increasing the most of available macro-nutrients (i.e., N, P, K and Mg) and micro-nutrients (i.e., Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) which reflected in improving fresh and dry weight of forage yield of four cutting. Sowing hydro or magneto-hydro priming seeds of alfalfa and irrigation with magnetic brackish water improved forage yield of four cutting compared to sowing untreated seeds and irrigation with brackish water. The improvement ranged between 20.18-34.82%and 33.07-39.14% in fresh forage yield of four cutting as well as 18.60-23.51% and 26.46-29.60% in dry forage yield of four cutting regarding sowing hydro and magneto-hydro priming seeds and irrigation with magnetic brackish, respectively. It can be concluded that magnetic field treatment can be a suitable option to increase seed germination and early growth variables of alfalfa seedling under different salinity conditions. In addition, Application of magnetic technology for seeds and/or brackish water under field conditions could decrease clearly salinity stress which reflected in improving alfalfa forage yield.

Keywords: magnetic field, germination, alfalfa forage yield, brackish water, salinity

Citation: Hozayn M, Ahmed AA, El-Saady AA, Abd-Elmonem AA. Enhancement in germination, seedling attributes and yields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) under salinity stress using static magnetic field treatments. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):369-78.

Assay of chitosan complex as edible film through inhibited abilities against some microbes caused food poisoning
Farouq M. Zarzor, Shaymaa Naji Dahham, Karkaz M. Thalij

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Abstract

This study was aimed to prepare the thinly edible film complex of Chitosan (1.5%) - sorbic acid (1%) to determine of inhibitory efficacy against the test-causing microbes and the effect of their use in the preservation of soft cheese and chicken breast samples at 4 ºC. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the chitosan complex was between 1.0 to 1.5 mg /5 ml of the dietary medium and that the addition of sorbic acid supporting substances increased the sensitivity of the test bacteria to each of the complex at 0.75 to 1.0 mg respectively. The inhibitory viability of the packaging complex against E.coli, P.flourescens, Staph.aureus, B.cerus and A.parasiticus, which cause food poisoning, increased with the concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg for the diameter of the inhibition zone at 11-14 and 19-23 and between 24-26 mm respectively. The conservation of packaging was complicated at 4° C in maintaining the weight of the soft cheese samples encapsulated for the 15th day and the chicken meat samples at the 12th compared to six days in control group samples. The results also indicated that the packaging of cheese samples by the chitosan complex was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the number of contaminated microbial species with increased storage time but was significantly less than the increase in these samples of the non-coated cheese samples. The total microbial counts were in storage days 3, 9, 12 and 15 at 0.1, 0.1, 1, 1, 2, and 2 (log cfu/ g) respectively, compared with the total numbers of microbes in the unpaired samples of 0.1, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12 (Log cfu/ g) respectively. It was similar to the types of bacteria, lactic acid, colorectal and total fungi, as well as the use of the chitosan complex. The total number of contaminated microorganisms for chicken meat samples was not significantly different.

Keywords: chitosan complex, food poisoning, edible film

Citation: Zarzor FM, Dahham SN, Thalij KM. Assay of chitosan complex as edible film through inhibited abilities against some microbes caused food poisoning. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):379-84.

Environmental study of fatty acid composition of safflower oil received by cold pressing method
Yesmurat Z. Mateyev, Daulet B. Shalginbayev, Sulushash Z. Mateyeva, Alexander N. Ostrikov, Anastasiya V. Terekhina, Maksim V. Kopylov

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Abstract

Safflower is an olive culture of the sunflower family, the most widespread in the environment of arid regions of Central Asia. Its seeds contain 25-37% (in the core 46-60%) of semi-drying oils and up to 12% protein. As an object of study used safflower seeds of varieties Iyrkas. Aim of the present study was to determine the fatty acid composition of safflower oil received by cold pressing method. In order to do this, an SP-2560 column and a “Chromoteck 5000.1” gas chromatograph were used. When analyzing the chromatograms obtained in the study, the most crucial and complex stage is the identification of peaks. To determine the content of each fatty acid, the area normalization method was used. In the process of producing safflower oil in a cold way, waste such as cake is formed. In the study of the amino acid composition of safflower cake using ion-exchange chromatography with postcolumn derivatization of ninhydrid (without tryptophan), a Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence liquid chromatograph was used, and the determination of tryptophan by ion-exchange derivatization of ninhydrin. It is revealed that the protein of the safflower oil cake contains 18 amino acids. All amino acids that make up the safflower cake are α-amino acids. Mass fraction of essential amino acids in safflower oil was 5.66%, in particular, lysine contains 82.15 nmol/ml, methionine 45.10 nmol/ml. The obtained values for the quality characteristics indicate the prospects of using this type of natural oil: directly for food, as well as for production of oilseeds, such as mayonnaise, sauces, spreads; as biofuel; when designing and optimizing compound feed formulations.

Keywords: cold pressing, safflower, quality, safflower oil, fat-and-acid composition, safflower cake, complex use

Citation: Mateyev YZ, Shalginbayev DB, Mateyeva SZ, Ostrikov AN, Terekhina AV, Kopylov MV. Environmental study of fatty acid composition of safflower oil received by cold pressing method. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):385-91.

The relationship between expression of Mir30 and Let7 genes in infertile males and non-obstructive azoospermia
Saeed Khosravi Mashizy, Mehrdad Shariati, Mokhtar Mokhtari, Saeed Khatamsaz

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Abstract

Any defect in the process of spermatogenesis can lead to a type of male infertility disorder called Non-Obstructive Azoospermia. Investigating factors involved in spermatogenesis, including genes, can help to understand the mechanism of infertility in men. On the other hand, a number of miRRNAs communicate with spermatogenesis and regulate it. The current paper aims at determining the let7 and mir30 genes expressions in testicular tissue of Azoospermic patients. This case-control study was performed on 40 infertile males with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia and 40 healthy fertile males. Genomic RNA from the testicular tissue samples as well as semen of the fertile individuals was extracted and converted to CDNA. Using Real-time PCR technique, using the specific primer of the examined genes and primer U6 as internal control, the expression rate in samples and controls was evaluated, and the amount of ΔCT was calculated, and finally, the relative number of multiplied mRNA copies of formula 2 -ΔΔCT was used. Data were then analyzed using Excel software, and compared using SPSS software and t-test and ANOVA. Based on the quantitative results obtained from the examination of the let7 and mir30 genes expression, the results showed that the let7 and mir30 gene expression in Azoospermic individuals was significantly different from that of fertile male sperm samples. The mean of let7 expression in Azoospermic individuals was more than 18 times higher than normal samples. (P-value = 0.04). There was a significant difference in expression of let7 in fertile and Azoospermic male samples by t-test. (P-value = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the expression of mir30 in fertile and infertile males with Azoospermia. (P-value = 0.27). There is a significant difference in the expression of let7 gene in Azoospermia samples compared to fertile individuals, and it can be concluded that this gene may play a role in the spermatogenesis process. By examining larger populations and proving this change of expression, the miRNA expression patterns were used to diagnose and treat Non-obstructive Azoospermic individuals.

Keywords: azoospermia, Let7, Mir30, male infertility

Citation: Mashizy SK, Shariati M, Mokhtari M, Khatamsaz S. The relationship between expression of Mir30 and Let7 genes in infertile males and non-obstructive azoospermia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):393-8.

Histological and immunohistochemical study of the healing role of the extract of Ipomoea batatas sweet potato extract in the gastric ulcer developed by aspirin in male albino rats
Hadeel Jabar Neama Almuoswi, Adnan W. M. Al-bideri

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Abstract

The study was conducted in the animal house of the faculty of veterinary medicine / university of al- Qadisiyah in order to identify the role of the alcoholic extract of sweet potato roots Ipomoea batatas portrico in the treatment of aspirin induced gastric ulcer by using 70 male rats of Rattus norvegicus. The animals was divided into two main groups as follows: the negative control group (C) was given the standard diet and distilled water only and the treatment groups (T), which developed peptic ulcer through oral dosage of (100 mg / kg body weight aspirin) for one week and then sacrificed 5 animals to confirm the presence of gastric ulcer and conducting the gross examination of the test. The treatment groups were divided into three groups, the first treatment group was considered as a positive control group (T1) or aspirin group only. The second group (T2) treated with (800 mg / kg body weight) extract of the sweet potato root by oral dose once daily for three consecutive weeks. The third treatment group (T3) was treated omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg bw) once daily for three consecutive weeks. The stomach was removed from each animal for the purpose of examining histological changes using three different stains: haematoxylin and eosin, Masson´s trichrome and periodic acid-schiff stain (PAS). The immunohistochemical teqnique was used to identify the epidermal growth factor receptors. The results of the histological examination using hematoxylin and eosin showed histopathological changes in the treatment group with aspirin in the gastric tissue represents by ulceration, congestion and infiltration of the inflammatory cells, bleeding, and thickening of the muscularis mucosae was observed in gastric tissue, While the disappearance of ulcers, bleeding and signs of congestion and gradual healing by the progressing of the experiment in animals treated with the extract of sweet potatoes(T2). The results showed by using (Masson and PAS) stains that there was a small or no amount of mucus and collagen fibers in the treatment group with aspirin (T1). However, there was a gradual increase in the amount of mucus and collagen fibers in the stomach tissue in the second and third treatment groups (T2, T3). The results of immunohistochemistry in the stomach showed no immune reaction to epidermal growth factor receptors in the (T1) treated animals group. The immunhistochemical staining was either very poor or absent, while a gradual increase in immune reaction and pigment strength was observed in the two groups of sweet potato extract (T2) and omeprazole (T1) groups with the duration of treatment.it was more pronounced in the animals of the second group (T2). The study concluded that the use of sweet potato root extract in the treatment of gastric ulcer had clear positive effects and was closed to omeprazole treatment.

Keywords: histological study, Immunohistochemical study, healing role

Citation: Almuoswi HJN, Al-bideri AWM. Histological and immunohistochemical study of the healing role of the extract of Ipomoea batatas sweet potato extract in the gastric ulcer developed by aspirin in male albino rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):399-407.

Assessment of the production potential of two-year-old pike-perch cultivated in ponds for the formation of RBS
Nina Badryzlova, Saya Koishybayeva, Saule Assylbekova, Kuanysh Isbekov

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Abstract

The article presents the results of cultivating two-year-old pike-perch in carp ponds in polyculture. The characteristic of hydrochemical indicators in ponds is presented. The data of hydrobiological analysis of experimental ponds are presented. The values of planting densities and fish-breeding biological indicators of two-year-old pike-perch and fish that make up the polyculture are given. The data of statistical analysis indicators of final mass values, minimum allowable length and fatness of two-year-old pike-perch grown in ponds for the purpose of selection in the formed pike-perch repair-broodstock are presented. The material on the ratio of weight and size groups of two-year-old pike-perch is presented. The conclusions are given in which the results of analysis of the fish productivity data of two-year-olds for pike-perch, variability of body weight values, minimum allowable length and fatness of two-year-old pike-perch, distribution of two-year-olds by weight and size groups are presented.

Keywords: pike-perch, two-year-olds, ponds, productivity, polyculture, fish-breeding biological indicators, statistical analysis, hydrobiological and hydrochemical researches, repair-broodstock

Citation: Badryzlova N, Koishybayeva S, Assylbekova S, Isbekov K. Assessment of the production potential of two-year-old pike-perch cultivated in ponds for the formation of RBS. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):409-17.

Production of gallic and glutamic acid-rich extract from Albertisia Papuana Becc leaves using Tannase in various pH and temperature hydrolysis
Sulvi Purwayantie, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Dwi Raharjo, Johandi

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Abstract

The Dayak’s Tribes in West Kalimantan of Indonesia uses the leaves of san-sangk (Albertisia papuana Becc.) as one of the seasoning ingredients. The leaves are known to contain gallic and glutamic acid, which are important chemical compounds for human health. Various extraction methods using solvents have been used to produce gallic and glutamic acid. Commercially, fermentation methods are preferred to use tannase from microbial for hydrolysis of tannins to produce gallic acid with glutamic acid as a by-product. Enzyme activity is strongly influenced by the condition of its enzymatic process conditions, especially pH and temperature. Therefore, the conditions of the research are carried out at certain pH and temperature conditions. The purpose of this research is to find conditions of hydrolysis to produce a crude extract which is rich in gallic acid and glutamic acid using commercial tannase. The research was applied factorial design, combination between the temperature (30; 35; 40°C) and pH (5; 5.5; 6). The observed variables: yield, total phenolic (as mg GAE/g) and total free amino acids (as glutamic acid). The results showed that the combination of temperature and pH affected the yield, total free amino acids and total phenolic. The highest yield and total phenolic, produced from incubation at 35°C and pH 5 and the highest total free amino acids which produced at 35°C and pH 6.0. This is important to explain that A. papuana Becc. leaves is very potential to be developed using enzyme hydrolysis to produce of gallic acid and glutamic acid.

Keywords: gallic acid, glutamic acid, Albertisia papuana, tannase

Citation: Purwayantie S, Sediawan WB, Raharjo D, Johandi. Production of gallic and glutamic acid-rich extract from Albertisia Papuana Becc leaves using Tannase in various pH and temperature hydrolysis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):419-24.

Serum levels of Paraoxonase 1 activity and total antioxidant capacity relationship with anti-mullerian hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome
Roaa Mohammed Jabbar, Batool Ali Ahmed, Enaas Saleh Jawad

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Abstract

Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a multifactorial disease and its prevalence rate increased significantly in the last few years. It is considered a cause of infertility and delayed reproduction, in addition to the many complications associated with the disease, which affect the lives of the patients in many aspects. During the study of the most important factors related to the disease it is clear that the rise in AMH is indicative of the degree of severity of the disease, where it reflects the number of small follicles in the ovary. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance with hyper- androgenemia conditions associated with PCOS enters the patients in vicious circle of factors where there is an increase in oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidants, including PON-1 and TAOC as the results showed, this in turn more increases the resistance of insulin and high level of testosterone followed by various complications on the heart and fertility and obesity and others. Serum AMH and PON-1was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent kit [Elisa], while FSH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and estradiol were determined by VIDAS kit method (enzyme linked fluorescent assay) and TAOC measured by colorimetric method.

Keywords: Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), PON-1, TAOC, PCOS

Citation: Jabbar RM, Ahmed BA, Jawad ES. Serum levels of Paraoxonase 1 activity and total antioxidant capacity relationship with anti-mullerian hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):425-30.

The algorithm selection of initial material corn by breeding for cold resistance and model of inbred line
Vitaliy L. Zhemoyda, Sergiy A. Krasnovsky, Lesia M. Karpuk, Olexandr S. Makarchuk

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Abstract

The results of laboratory (cold-test method) and field assessment of corn inbred lines by cold-resistance breeding are presented. The scientific approach to selection of initial material for breeding on cold resistance are proposed on the basis of investigation results. The model cold-resistant inbred line was developedon the basis of the conducted evaluation in the laboratory and field conditions which is recommended for use in the breeding process.

Keywords: corn, inbred lines, cold resistance, cold-test, similarity and seed germination, identification, sowing term, inbred line model

Citation: Zhemoyda VL, Krasnovsky SA, Karpuk LM, Makarchuk OS. The algorithm selection of initial material corn by breeding for cold resistance and model of inbred line. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):431-6.

Influence of different feeds and feed additives on fish-breeding and biological indicators at rearing rainbow trout
A. A. Aitkaliyeva, Sh. A. Alpeisov, K. B. Isbekov, S. Zh. Assylbekova, N. S. Badryzlova

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Abstract

The paper analyzes an influence of various feeds and feed additives on fish-breeding and biological indicators at rearing rainbow trout. Experimental data indicate a positive influence of probiotic “Biocons” in composition of the feed on fish-breeding and biological indicators of both juveniles and commercial trout. As a result of research, the norms for introduction of probiotic action “Biocons” into artificial trout starter and production feed in the amount of 0.5% were tested. With a probiotic effect, the developed feed for trout can improve fish productivity, reduce the cost of feed for production, by increasing weight and increasing survivability. On the basis of obtained data on the positive influence of probiotic preparation “Biocons” on fish-breeding and biological indicators of juvenile and commercial trout, the feasibility of including probiotic in starter and production domestic feeds for trout was confirmed.

Keywords: trout, fish feed, fodder coefficient, fish-breeding and biological indicators, basin technology

Citation: Aitkaliyeva AA, Alpeisov SA, Isbekov KB, Assylbekova SZ, Badryzlova NS. Influence of different feeds and feed additives on fish-breeding and biological indicators at rearing rainbow trout. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):437-42.

The role of genetic material and yeast in reducing the effect of T2 toxin on some physiological parameters in mice
Wisam Jasim Abed Ali, Mohammed R. AL-Sharifi, Iman Mohammed Jebur, Hazim A. Walli

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Abstract

The results showed a significant increase in active the Aspartate transaminase enzyme when dosage by toxin (122 enzymatic units/L.), compared with control group (102 units / liter). While genetic material and yeast with toxin showed significantly reduced of toxin effectiveness. The results showed increase in activity of Aspartate transaminase enzyme in animal serum when dosage by toxin 8.9 enzymatic unit / L. and 8.5 enzymatic unit / L. for control group. The genetic material and yeast as adsorbents caused a reduction in the effect of trichothecenes on Alanine transaminase activity, thus restoring normal activity. The results also of this experiment showed that the dosage of trichothecenes for laboratory animals led to a significant reduction at the level (0.05) in its active enzyme Alkaline phosphatase activity (35.5 enzyme alone/L.), compared with control group (37.1 U/L.).The results showed that added of genetic material and yeast , caused in a significant decrease in enzyme activity, compared with dosage of toxin alone or control group .The results showed that the reason for the decrease in total protein in the blood may be due to the presence of toxin, that the toxin effects on the processes that lead to the manufacture of proteins in the cell, may affect in the cloning of DNA into mRNA or may effect on some of the substances that play a role in translating mRNA into ribosomes and the factors involved in initiating the process of protein synthesis. The dosage of trichothecene with the genetic material and yeast , has caused a significant increase in the concentration of the total protein in the blood and this is due, as already pointed out to the role of these factors in the toxicity of trichothecene which leads to blocking its effect ,also the result showed that the dosage of trichothecene has significantly increased the concentration of uric acid in blood (5.2 mg / 100 ml) compared with control group 4.3 mg / 100 ml , genetic material and yeast did not significantly reduce the concentration of uric acid. While the results showed that dosage of trichothecenes a significant decrease in blood glucose concentration (172 mg / 100 ml) compared with control group (184 mg / 100 ml), and by used genetic material and yeast caused significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose compared with used of toxin alone. The results showed that the trichothecene caused a significant reduction in the total protein concentration in the blood, where the concentration was 4.7 mg / 100 ml with the presence of toxin compared with control group 5.9 mg / 100 ml.

Keywords: Trichothecenes, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase

Citation: Abed Ali WJ, AL-Sharifi MR, Jebur IM, Walli HA. The role of genetic material and yeast in reducing the effect of T2 toxin on some physiological parameters in mice. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):443-9.

Environment analysis of using the ripper tooth of combined unit for minimum tillage
B. Kalimbetov, A. Tukhtakuziyev, G. Kenzhibayeva, D. Karmanov, B. Kalymbetov, B. Kablan

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Abstract

From an environmental perspective, the article presents results of theoretical studies to justify parameters and the angle of entry into the soil of ripper tooth, and width and length of the working surface of the ripper tooth of combined unit. Graphs of changes in the working surface length of the ripper tooth depend on the angle of entry of the tooth into the soil at different values of tillage depth and width of combined soil-cultivating unit for minimum tillage, to ensure high-quality loosening of the soil at minimum energy consumption. Based on the results of theoretical and experimental studies in the field of soil science and agriculture, a scheme for placing working bodies on the frame of a combined soil-cultivating unit for minimal tillage has been developed, which contributes to increasing soil fertility with minimal energy and labor costs.

Keywords: combined unit for minimum tillage, ripper tooth, angle of entry into the soil, soil science, width, length of the working surface of the ripper tooth, changes in the length of the working surface of the ripper tooth, depending on the angle of entry, depth and width of the tillage of combined unit, scheme of the working bodies

Citation: Kalimbetov B, Tukhtakuziyev A, Kenzhibayeva G, Karmanov D, Kalymbetov B, Kablan B. Environment analysis of using the ripper tooth of combined unit for minimum tillage. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):451-7.

Detecting saline and sweet underground water by geoelectric method and preventing mixing them (case study: Zahkolat District, Roodbar, Kerman)
Sayed Abdalreza Mostafavi, Morteza Fallahpour

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Abstract

Identification of low or high soluble layers is among the applications of geophysical science, in addition to determining the depth and amount of water, as well as checking the path of the hydrous layer and the genus of the layers of the earth. In order to study the characteristics of groundwater such as depth, thickness and area of aquifer and determining the layers of sweet water and saline water and their salts and their separation, a hydrologic survey was conducted in the area of a well in the Roodbar city of southern Kerman province (Zahhkolt region). Also in this research, areas with high discharge potential are determined based on geophysical data. Hydrology studies were conducted to determine the complexity of the aquifer, to determine the depth and thickness of the hydrous layer, to determine the boundary of saline and sweet water, and to determine suitable sites for drilling wells. By determining the surface and deep salty water layer, a solution was necessary to isolate the salty water layer surface to prevent penetration into the deep-water layer and the maximum depth of drilling for freshwater extraction was determined.

Keywords: salty water layer, electrical resistivity method, Schulmemberger array, catheterization and profiles composition, Geophysics ecological, stable level

Citation: Mostafavi SA, Fallahpour M. Detecting saline and sweet underground water by geoelectric method and preventing mixing them (case study: Zahkolat District, Roodbar, Kerman). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):459-67.

Study the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Trigonella Foenum – Graececum L and some antibiotics against some bacterial species isolated and identificated from acne vulgaris infections for as ample of Sumer University students
Alaa Yaqoob Rahy

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Abstract

Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the Pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft, and sebaceous gland. the most common disorders treated by dermatologists and other health care providers while it most often affects adolescent, it is not uncommon adults and can also be seen in the children. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of disease such as acne and others, has led to high in cadence of side effects, in addition to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. In the present study, we used fenugreek (trigonElla foenumgreucum L) is a medical plant have an important inhibitory effects against bacteria. This plant is widely distributed. Throughout the world and which belongs to the family Fabaeaceae. Among (50) infection with acne, (28) were female and (22) male. This is a randomly result in this study, because, the numbers of female students in summer university is higher than male. The present study appeared the spreading of acne infection in earlier age of female than male. A36 specimens were gram – positive bacteria referred to staphylococcus (28) isolates were s.epidermidis and (10) isolates were s. aureus, (8) isolates were propionibacterium acne. Also, (3) isolates yeasts referred to pityrosporum spp., and (1) isolates was gram – negative. Aureus and s. epidermides were variable insensitivity against antibiotics. The higher sensitivity was against cephalic. For all two types of Bacteria.in this study we note that the aqueous extract was more effective in the inhibition of bacterial growth than Alcohol extract.

Keywords: Acne vulgaris, Trigon ella foenum – graecum, antibiotics

Citation: Rahy AY. Study the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Trigonella Foenum – Graececum L and some antibiotics against some bacterial species isolated and identificated from acne vulgaris infections for as ample of Sumer University students. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):469-73.

Calculation of energy indicators of three-stage bioreactor
G. T. Ramazanova, M. K. Aldabergenov, Plamen Kangalov, N. M. Orynbayev, S. Amirseit

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Abstract

The article deals with the energy indicators of a three-stage bioreactor for the technological production of liquid organic fertilizer. The results of the analysis of the basis of single–stage processing and equipment for obtaining biofertilizers are given. The technological parameters of the developed three-stage bioreactor based on the conditions of uniqueness of the similarity theory methods and thermal similarity criteria are substantiated.

Keywords: agriculture, animal husbandry, biofertilizer, processing, substrate, manure, waste, bioreactor, biogas unit, biogas, fermentation, manure removal

Citation: Ramazanova GT, Aldabergenov MK, Kangalov P, Orynbayev NM, Amirseit S. Calculation of energy indicators of three-stage bioreactor. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):475-83.

Effect of chocolate brown HT E155 on some hormones in male albino rats
Jabbar R. Abbas, Hussein A. Al-Hamadawi

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Abstract

Today, food colorants additives are randomly used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. It causes health problems to human therefore this study was carried to evaluate the possible effects of Chocolate Brown HT E155 on body weight and some sex hormones in male albino rats. The present study including eighteen of healthy male rats, divided into three groups as follows: The first group (control group C) animals were treated with normal drinking water, the second group (T1) animals were treated with chocolate brown dye at the concentration of 200 mg/ kg of body weight and the third group (T2) animals were treated with chocolate brown dye at the concentration of 400 mg/ kg of body weight. Chocolate brown dye was given for eight weeks to all the experimental animals at experiment end blood serum was collected to determine concentration of some sex hormones included GnRH, testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum of rats. Our results showed that significant decreased (P<0.05) is found in body weight and level of FSH, LH, GnRH and testosterone hormone in T1 and T2 group when compared with control group, as well as, occur significant decreased (P<0.05) in level of GnRH and testosterone hormone in T2 group compared with T1 group. From this study, we concluded using of Chocolate brown dye in various foods led to reduce body weight and some negative effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis function.

Keywords: chocolate brown dye, sex hormones, testis, rats

Citation: Abbas JR, Al-Hamadawi HA. Effect of chocolate brown HT E155 on some hormones in male albino rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):485-9.

The use of pectin substance in sauce production technologies
Svetlana N. Butova, Maxim Yu. Musika, Ekaterina R. Volnova, Julia V. Nikolaeva

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Abstract

Functional food, in particular emulsion sauces, is a new promising trend in modern food industry. Traditionally, sauce manufacturers use starch, which has a number of negative aspects in storage. That is why the possibility of creating a functional sauce based on pectic substances employed as thickening and structuring agent has been investigated. The study used apple, citrus and beetroot pectins in powdered form. Organoleptic, biochemical, physical and chemical tests have been undertaken to confirm their compliance with the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation. To determine the possibility of using pectins as structuring agents and stabilizers, three formulations of tomato sauces differing by pectin type were developed, and the starch-based ketchup formulation was used as a reference. Six samples with different concentrations of pectin have been analyzed to determine the optimal pectin content in the sauce. It was established that the structure-forming and thickening properties of all samples of pectins are better than those of starch at the same concentration (0.5%). The best structure-forming properties have been demonstrated by beetroot pectin. All laboratory samples of tomato sauces complied with the requirements of regulatory documentation. Consequently, the use of pectins, as an alternative to starch in sauces, allows not only to create a functional product, but also significantly reduce the amount of structuring agent in the formulation. Thus, it is advisable to add the beetroot pectin to any kind of tomato based sauce.

Keywords: apple pectin, citrus pectin, beetroot pectin, tomato sauce, functional product

Citation: Butova SN, Musika MY, Volnova ER, Nikolaeva JV. The use of pectin substance in sauce production technologies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):491-4.

The response of farmers to implementation of agricultural marketing information system
E. Yektiningsih, A. Purnawati, R. Hidayat, Sugiarto

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Abstract

This study was aimed to identify the farmers’ response to an agricultural marketing information system. In this the study, 100 randomly selected farmers in Pasuruan and Malang, East Java, Indonesia, were members of horticultural farmer groups planting different commodities, including potatoes, apples, peppers, chrysanthemums, and other vegetables. The observations were conducted before and after the farmers had attended a workshop about developing business plan and training on a marketing information system. The responses of the farmers to the implementation of the agricultural marketing information system were different for each commodity, but the farmers were enthusiastic about developing their businesses and applying the information system, which is expected to be effective for marketing. The risks related with the system were market factors, including that the system can be applied in its own market that marketing must be fully coordinated, and had to update the market price constantly. The risks obtained from having a partnership were that the partners build and maintain the trustworthy relationship to farmers.

Keywords: agricultural, farmer, implementation, marketing, model

Citation: Yektiningsih E, Purnawati A, Hidayat R, Sugiarto. The response of farmers to implementation of agricultural marketing information system. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):495-00.

Synthesis of some new 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds derived from 1H-imidazole and study their biological activity
Khalid A. Al-Badrany, Amar S. Mohammed, Yuosra K. Alasadi

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Abstract

Ethyl 2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetate (A1) was synthesized by the reaction of ethylchloroacetate with imidazol, Then refluxed with hydrazine hydrate to obtain 2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)acidhydrazid (A2) . (A2) was reaction with various substituted benzyldehyd to gain 6 novel compounds shiffe bases(A3-8).and 5-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)3-N-acetyl-2-(aryl)-1,3,4-(2H)-Oxadiazol (A9-14) were synthesized by the reaction of shiffe bases(A3-8)with acetic anhydride .In order to show the antibacterial activity of prepared compounds are evaluated against four types of common bacteria (Proteus spp,S.pyogenes, Escherichia coli,p.aeruginosa). The result of biological study are compared with standered antibiotic (Ciprofloxacin & Tetracycline). The structure of the synthesized compounds are confirmed by I.R, 1H-NMR &13C-NMR spectra and Some chemical physical data.

Keywords: imidiazole , oxadiazole, biological activity, shiffe base

Citation: Al-Badrany KA, Mohammed AS, Alasadi YK. Synthesis of some new 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds derived from 1H-imidazole and study their biological activity. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):501-7.

Confined aquifer field potentiality new classification
Gamal H. El Saeed, Neveen B. Abdelmageed, Peter Riad, M. Komy

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Abstract

This research introduces new classification for confined aquifer field, the previous classification for Aquifer potentiality was done by Geohage, 1979 and depends only on transmissivity which set that more than 500 m2/day in is classified as high potentiality, meanwhile 50-500 m2/day is moderate, and the rest between low to negligible. The previous classification; did not take in consideration the other hydraulic properties of the aquifer, the surface area extension of the aquifer and the heterogeneity of the aquifer which all affect directly on water exploitation management. The research was conducted in the three areas of Darb El Arbeain, southern western Desert, Egypt. In this study four suggested scenarios of pumping rates have been explored using the three dimensional finite difference flow model (MODFLOW 2005) to simulate the flow system. The study introduced new classification for confined aquifer classification where set that any confined aquifer exploiting 100 000 m3/day with less than 20 m steady aquifer drawdown, aquifer response, is classified as high potential, meanwhile under same exploitation rate with 20-40 mt as aquifer response is considered as moderate potentiality, and the rest is low in potentiality.

Keywords: Aquifer potentiality, hydraulic properties, surface area extension, flow model (MODFLOW 2005), moderate potentiality

Citation: El Saeed GH, Abdelmageed NB, Riad P, Komy M. Confined aquifer field potentiality new classification. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):509-16.

Study of topoisomerase I (Topo I) level and some biochemical parameters in diabetic patients
Nagham Q. Kadhim, Saif M. H. Al-faraji, Firas T. Maher

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Abstract

This study was done to determine level of Topoisomerase I and other biochemical parameters such as (Glucose, HbA1c, Insulin, C-Peptide, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) in Diabetic patient. The study included (70) patients of both sexes with diabetes for both types (type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus) at age (27-79) year, and included (30) apparently healthy persons of both sexes as a control groups. The Results showed that there was a highly significant decrease (p≤0.01) in the level of Topoisomerase I in Diabetic patients compared with control group, no significant differences between both sexes and age groups studied and there were no significant differences in enzyme levels concerning mass body index (BMI) between patients and people with history of disease and without history of disease and smoking and non-smoking. Results also showed that there are a highly significant increase (p≤0.001) in the levels of glucose and HbA1c in patients group compared to control group and significant increase in insulin levels in type2 diabetic patients compared with control group, and a significant decrease in the levels of insulin in type1 diabetic patients compared with control group and a significant increase in C-peptide level in type 2 diabetic patients compared with control group while there was a significant decrease in type 1 diabetic patients compared with control group. There was a significant increase (p≤0.01) in cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels in patients groups compared with control group, and no significant difference in HDL and LDL level.

Keywords: Topoisomerase I, Diabetes Mellitus, C-Peptide

Citation: Kadhim NQ, Al-faraji SMH, Maher FT. Study of topoisomerase I (Topo I) level and some biochemical parameters in diabetic patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):517-22.

Biological study of changes in transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase in the blood of heifers of different cattle breeds
E. G. Rotmistrovskaya, V. I. Eremenko

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Abstract

Biologically the most important factor that influences development of dairy and beef cattle breeding is the selection of cattle. For this purpose, a detailed biological study of interior and exterior indicators, which would reflect the breed features of cattle, is required. It is known that blood metabolites are closely correlated with the level of milk production. In addition, metabolic reactions are extremely consistent with each other. A special role is played by transaminases: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase - blood plasma enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidation of lactic acid to pyruvic acid. In this regard, it is necessary to study the activity of these enzymes in cattle of different breeds. Objective and tasks of the research. Objective of this paper was to study the activity of AST, ALT and LDH in black-and-white Holstein, Simmental, Aberdeen-Angus heifers, as well as in crossbred heifers (Simmental’s Aberdeen-Angus). The experiments involved all breeds, 10 animals from each, of similar age. The level of feeding of animals was the same and corresponded to the level of their physiological state. Blood for the study of enzymes was collected from the tail vein, before the morning feeding once in a month in the neonatal period, at the age of 3, 6, 12 and 15 months. The activity of the AST, ALT and LDH enzymes was determined on a Saphire 400 biochemical analyzer using standard BioSistems reagent kits. The experimental data were processed using Student’s t-test in Microsoft Office Excel 2007. It follows from the analysis that the activity of ALT, AST and LDH increases with increasing age of the heifers from birth to 15 months of age. In the black-and-white Holstein and Simmental heifers the activity of ALT and AST is lower compared to the compared group of Aberdeen-Angus breed and crossbred animals. Opposite data were obtained in the study of the enzyme LDH; thus, the activity of LDH in the blood of black-and-white Holstein and Simmental heifers is slightly higher compared to the group of Aberdeen-Angus breed and crossbred animals.

Keywords: biological analysis, cattle, breeds, Holstein, Simmental, Aberdeen-Angus, cross-bred heifers (Simmental x Aberdeen-Angus), heifers, transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase

Citation: Rotmistrovskaya EG, Eremenko VI. Biological study of changes in transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase in the blood of heifers of different cattle breeds. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):523-7.

Estimation of 5’-Nucleotidase from blood of women with Toxoplasma gondii parasites
Mawahib Q. Salih, Asra’a I. Yaseen, Intisar Gh. Abdulwahab

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Abstract

5’-Nucleotidase (5’-NT) is a phosphatase enzyme that works on Nucleoside-5-monophosphate like adenosine-5-mono-phosphate , 5’-NT is a protein In vitro fertilization of the plasma membrane in a large variety of mammalian cells, is one of the most widespread enzymes in animals, plants, microorganisms, as well as some types of primates and parasites, it’s found in many tissues of the human body, Serum , Thyroid, aortic artery, bone and human feces also exist in the kidney, vagina and red blood cells. This study aims to measure the activity of the 5’-NT enzyme from the women with toxoplasmosis. The study included (50) blood samples from healthy women and (50) patients they are between 18-45 years old. The results showed a significant increase in the activity of 5’-NT enzyme at a probability level of 0.01 in women with conical arcillary parasite compared to healthy and significantly higher in the activity of 5’-NT enzyme at the probability level of 0.01 in pregnant women with cones Non-pregnant women, also found increased activity of 5’-NT with age in sick women. There was also a significant increase in the activity of 5’-NT in non-pregnant women compared with healthy non-pregnant women with a probability of 0.01, and increased activity of 5’-NT during the last months of pregnancy in women and healthy compared to the first three months of pregnancy.

Keywords: 5’-Nucleotidase, blood, toxoplasma gondii parasites, enzyme

Citation: Salih MQ, Yaseen AI, Abdulwahab IG. Estimation of 5’-Nucleotidase from blood of women with Toxoplasma gondii parasites. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):529-32.

Growth and length-weight relationships of Aral Sazan Cyprinus Carpio Aralensis Spishakow, 1935 (Cyprinidae; Osteichthyes) in the Sarysu River Watershed
Vladimir Krainyuk, Saule Assylbekova, Olga Kirichenko, Kuanysh Isbekov, Talgat Abzhanov

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Abstract

A number of biological parameters of Aral sazan from the Sarysu river are described in comparison with outbred carp from spatially close reservoirs of Central Kazakhstan, as well as with previously published data. It was noted that the rate of linear growth in the Sarysu basin decreased compared to 50 years of the last century. In comparison with the growth of carp, the relative identity of its rate was noted. Linear-weight relationships (LWR) of sazans from the Sarysu river system show the predominance of linear growth over the weight, as well as in outbred Central Kazakhstan carp, contrary to existing data on East Asian populations (Amur carp) and Turkish carp. Based on the data obtained, it is concluded that the linear-weight growth indicators will not change when the Aral sazan is introduced into the Ishim and Nura river systems located to the north of Sarysu.

Keywords: Aral sazan, carp, growth, linear-weight relationships

Citation: Krainyuk V, Assylbekova S, Kirichenko O, Isbekov K, Abzhanov T. Growth and length-weight relationships of Aral Sazan Cyprinus Carpio Aralensis Spishakow, 1935 (Cyprinidae; Osteichthyes) in the Sarysu River Watershed. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):533-9.

Environmental pollution in the common borders between Iran and Iraq and the international governing documents
Davood Khoshnevisan, Parvin Farshchi, Daryoush Karimi, Mansour Pournouri

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Abstract

Iran-Iraq boundary has been of great social, cultural and economic importance since ancient times. The first civilization emerged in this land and the events took place around it affected the human societies. Today, the preservation of the environment is an important issue to everyone. People make use of all devices and possibilities to create an appropriate condition to survive. Environmental pollution in common areas between Iran and Iraq has long been affected the environmental issues of the two countries and imposed irreparable damages upon them. The present study, using a descriptive research method, examined the common environmental pollution in Iran-Iraq boundary and the international governing documents. The present article attempted to study the air pollution caused by dust storm and the air pollution in border areas caused by unconventional weapons (chemical and DU), with the order of importance. In this regard, the research findings and results show that international law, including international conventions, does not meet the environmental requirements of the two countries of Iran and Iraq in pursuit of sustainable development of the region, moreover, international cooperation, especially regional cooperation, can play an essential role in the creation of an appropriate basis for sustainable development.

Keywords: environmental pollution, joint cooperation, dust and sand storms, unconventional weapons

Citation: Khoshnevisan D, Farshchi P, Karimi D, Pournouri M. Environmental pollution in the common borders between Iran and Iraq and the international governing documents. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):541-8.

Stress-metabolitesphytoalexins -stilbenoids of grape skin Rkatsiteli variety (Vitisvinifera L.) in condition gray mildew
Marine Bezhuashvili, Ludmila Tskhvedadze, Magdana Surguladze, Giorgi Shoshiashvili, Shorena Kharadze, Levan Gagunashvili, Lali Elanidze, Paata Vashakidze

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Abstract

It has been studied Change of phytoalexins - stilbenes of white wine variety Rkatsiteli grape skin in the condition of the disease gray mildew (botrytis cinerea). The samples of health and infected grapes –with 60% gray mildew, were taken in 2018 year during the technical maturity, from the same vineyard planted in eastern Georgia. The vineyard soil belongs to meadow cinnamonic –Calcariccambisols and calcic kastanozems type. Vineyard is 16 years old. Based on the HPLC/MS analysis are established the stilbenoids profiles of healthly and infected skins and has been revealed Stress-metabolite stylbenoids - accumulated as a result of the action of botrytis cinearea. The dominant stress-metabolites Stilbenoides are resveratrol and its derivatives: trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, cis-piceid, trans-piceatannol, trans-ε-viniferin. The variability of these stilbenoids concentrations in the condition of the disease -gray mildew,is different: trans-resveratrol 39.27mg kg1→57.33mg kg-1; trans-piceid 13.72mgkg-1→29.43mgkg-1 ; trans-piceatannol 5.37mg kg-1→19.45mg kg-1; trans-ε-viniferin 7.22 mg kg-1→5.13mg kg-1. The stress-metabolite stilbenoids in the conditions of the disease with gray mildew, is a scientific novelty for the grape of Rkatsiteli variety. The results of the research are important for determination the correlation of the vine immunity with the phytoalexins-stilbenoids.

Keywords: grape, Stilbenoids, gray mildew, rkatsiteli

Citation: Bezhuashvili M, Tskhvedadze L, Surguladze M, Shoshiashvili G, Kharadze S, Gagunashvili L, et al. Stress-metabolitesphytoalexins -stilbenoids of grape skin Rkatsiteli variety (Vitisvinifera L.) in condition gray mildew. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):549-54.

Chewing lice parasitic on migratory aquatic birds in Al-Delmaj marsh/ Iraq
Hussam Saeed Al-Aredhi, Hadi Madlool Al-Mayali

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Abstract

This study was conducted to detect the chewing lice infested migratory aquatic birds in Al-Dalmaj marsh during the period from October 2017 to March 2018, for this aim 154 birds specimens belonging to 11 bird species were examined for the chewing lice infestation. Results of the current study showed recorded nine species of ectoparasites were: Menacanthus stramineus (37.01%), Menacanthus corntus (18.18%) Menacanthus eurysternus (11.04%), Menopon gallinae (18.18%), Trinoton querquedulae (5.84%) Columbicola columbae (8.44%) Aaticola crasssicorins (3.90%), Fulicoffula gallinule (3.25%) and Saemundssonia lari (2.69%), two species of them recorded for the first time in Iraq were: M. eurysternus and T. querquedulae. No significant differences between males and females birds in infested with ectoparasites, while the infestation percentage of ectoparasites significantly decreased with weight increase at level (P ≤ 0.05). The double infestation was the highest with a significant difference followed by single infestation then the triple infestation.

Keywords: migratory aquatic birds, Al-Dalmaj marsh, chewing lice

Citation: Al-Aredhi HS, Al-Mayali HM. Chewing lice parasitic on migratory aquatic birds in Al-Delmaj marsh/ Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):555-9.

Opportunities for the development of Yam as an alternative of additional income (case study in District Wringin Anom, Gresik)
Priyono, Zainal Mustafa Elqadri, Briyan Cadalora Putra, Cisa Cadalora Putri

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the strategy of developing sweet potato plants as an additional alternative to family income. This type of research is a case study. While the analysis in this study is: 1) EFAS analysis to determine and analyze external environmental factors are opportunities and threats. 2) IFA analysis to identify and analyze environmental factors, namely internal strengths and weaknesses. 3) SWOT analysis to determine the strength and use of opportunities that can minimize weaknesses and threats. From the results of the SWOT analysis. Opportunities for The Development of Yam, As an Alternative of Additional Income, processed products include several: product promotion for export; development of derivative products; marketing strategy. As an Alternative of Additional Income “ whose findings are alternative products that are based on the SWOT analysis, namely yam flour, with attention to some of the following: Product for export promotion (Kenyon and Fowler, 2000), Development of derivative products, Lipton (2005), Wiggins, S. (2006), Marketing strategy Fred. R. David. (2004), Hunger, J. David, and Wheelen, Thomas L. (2003).

Keywords: opportunities, development strategy, utilization of yam, diversification, the family income

Citation: Priyono, Elqadri ZM, Putra BC, Putri CC. Opportunities for the development of Yam as an alternative of additional income (case study in District Wringin Anom, Gresik). Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):561-70.

Methods applied to resolve law conflicts between environmental requirements and commitments of investment rights
Aida Mokhtare, Sadegh Zibakalam, Davood Hermidas Bavand, Zahra Abedi

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Abstract

Paying more attention to environmental protection along with remarkable effect of investment on the environment; countries and international organizations proceeded to legislate special rules and regulations to minimize the negative reciprocal effect of investment and the environment and regulate the relations and the limits of these two domains, as well. Governments and international organizations have tried to reduce the severity and damage of environmental investment measures, as much as possible. At the same time, however, there reported no interrupts of investment in global investment and development. This increase in sensitivity has revealed the existing conflicts between environmental requirements and commitments arising from investment contracts. These conflicts are generally based on two types of principle conflicts (normative) and legitimate (legal) conflicts. The present study aims to investigate the types of conflicts and how to resolve them in different courts.

Keywords: normative conflict, legitimate or legal conflict, rules of conflict resolution, environmental requirements, specific law and general law

Citation: Mokhtare A, Zibakalam S, Bavand DH, Abedi Z. Methods applied to resolve law conflicts between environmental requirements and commitments of investment rights. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):571-7.

Investigation on parasitic infections associated with appendicitis and the histological changes for the infected appendixes in Samarra City, Iraq
Maroof Sabti Juma Al-Ammash, Hiba Riyadh Jameel Al-abodi, Fatima Ibrahim Mohammad

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Abstract

Protozoa and parasitic helminthes are the reasons for several disorders in the human digestive tract such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, appendicitis and intestinal ulcers. A total number of 80 appendixes specimens were collected from 36 males and 44 females. All the specimens were eradicated from appendicitis patients aged 4-50 years old who underwent a surgery. A total number 48 (60%) of 80 specimens was recorded for parasitic infections of infected appendixes. Four species of parasites were detected, the highest prevalence was Entamoeba histolytica 85.4% followed by Enterobius vermicularis 6.2%, Giardia lamblia 4.2% and Trichomonas hominis. Depending on age and gender a highest prevalence of parasitic infections of infected appendixes in the age group 11-20 years old (43.8%), while, the prevalence infection in males 56.3% was higher than females 43.7%. The present study reported different histological changes in infected appendixes according to different species of parasites when compared with control specimen.

Keywords: appendicitis, parasitic infections, histological changes of appendix, Samarra

Citation: Al-Ammash MSJ, Al-abodi HRJ, Mohammad FI. Investigation on parasitic infections associated with appendicitis and the histological changes for the infected appendixes in Samarra City, Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):579-85.

Analysis of territories - sources of food raw materials for the implementation of cross-cutting technologies for the production of functional foods in Russia
Gavrilova Olga Ivanovna, Shegelman Ilia Romanovich, Shchukin Pavel Olegovich, Vasilev Aleksey Sergeevich

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Abstract

The article represents the analysis of territories as means of raw materials sources for the implementation of cross-cutting technologies for the production of functional food products. The article is based on the analysis and synthesis of works written by famous Russian scientists who examined the soil characteristics of the territories of the Federal Districts of the Russian Federation, taking into account their large territories, where biogeochemical provinces differ greatly in soil conditions. Particular attention is paid to arable land. The characteristic of the territories - sources of raw materials in the context of the Federal Districts of Russia in terms of their potential for the production of food raw materials for cross-cutting technologies for the production of functional foods is given.

Keywords: soil analysis, biochemical zoning, land resources, arable land, food agricultural raw materials, functional food products

Citation: Ivanovna GO, Romanovich SI, Olegovich SP, Sergeevich VA. Analysis of territories - sources of food raw materials for the implementation of cross-cutting technologies for the production of functional foods in Russia. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):587-94.

A medical bioscience study of serum levels of paraoxonase 1 activity and total antioxidant capacity relationship with anti-mullerian hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome
Roaa Mohammed Jabbar, Batool Ali Ahmed, Enaas Saleh Jawad

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Abstract

The medical bioscience aims at training and developing scientists who will conduct research with a view to reduce the many lifestyle associated sicknesses. Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a multifactorial disease and its prevalence rate increased significantly in the last few years. It is considered a cause of infertility and delayed reproduction, in addition to the many complications associated with the disease, which affect the lives of the patients in many aspects. During the study of the most important factors related to disease it is clear that the rise in AMH is indicative of degree of severity of disease, where it reflects the number of small follicles in the ovary. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance with hyper- androgenemia conditions associated with PCOS enters the patients in vicious circle of factors where there is an increase in oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidants, including PON-1 and TAOC as the results showed, this in turn more increases the resistance of insulin and high level of testosterone followed by various complications on the heart and fertility and obesity and others. Serum AMH and PON-1was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent kit [Elisa], while FSH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and estradiol were determined by VIDAS kit method (enzyme linked fluorescent assay) and TAOC measured by colorimetric method.

Keywords: medical bioscience, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), PON-1, TAOC, PCOS

Citation: Jabbar RM, Ahmed BA, Jawad ES. A medical bioscience study of serum levels of paraoxonase 1 activity and total antioxidant capacity relationship with anti-mullerian hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):595-9.

Investigating the subsoil saline and sweet water layers in Rudbar Region, Kerman Province
Sayed Abdalreza Mostafavi, Morteza Fallahpour

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Abstract

In this research, using the geophysical method, it was attempted to identify and study the different layers of the earth in terms of recognizing the boundary of salt and sweet water and engineering solutions to prevent the penetration of saline water into fresh water in the wells and also the method of exploitation The freshwater is enclosed between two layers of water in the Roudbar area of Kerman province. The results showed that the geophysical method in this region estimates the boundary of salt and sweet water interference with acceptable accuracy; therefore, it is possible to assess the geophysical results with acceptable information for groundwater studies. In order to study the hydrogeological characteristics of groundwater aquifers such as depth, aquifer thickness and determining the layers of fresh water and salinity and their boundary separation, a hydrologic survey was conducted in the city of Roudbar of Kerman province. Also, according to geophysical data, areas with high discharge potential in the study area are determined. Hydrological studies led to the determination of the complex aquifer status, the determination of the depth and thickness of the juice layer, the determination of the boundary of saline and sweet water, and the determination of suitable areas for drilling wells. By determining the surface of saline and deep saline water, a solution was needed to isolate the saline layer of the surface to prevent penetration into the deep water layer. The results showed that the maximum depth of drilling for the extraction of fresh water was determined.

Keywords: soluble water layer, special electric resistive method, Roudbar area

Citation: Mostafavi SA, Fallahpour M. Investigating the subsoil saline and sweet water layers in Rudbar Region, Kerman Province. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):601-7.

Types and parameters of combined tool implements for perspective soil-saving technologies
Askar Rzaliyev, Shabden Bekmukhametov, Valeriya Goloborodko, Daniyar Begaly

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Abstract

The article presents the results on the comparative efficiency of technological complexes of machines in traditional and minimum tillage soil-saving technologies, according to which the replacement of single-function machines with universal and combined staffed with a certain set of implements reduces the load of machine-tractor units on the soil and thereby reduces the negative impact of machines on the soil structure. In the development of universal and combined tools for minimum soil-saving technologies, implements were selected, and their layout schemes ensure the formation of the minimum number of erosion-hazardous particles and high-quality tillage. The design and technological scheme of the universal tool provides for the possibility of its layout with various types of loosening, leveling implements and packer rollers depending on the type of operations and soil moisture.

Keywords: soil erosion, soil-saving technologies, erosion-hazardous particles, implements of tillage machines, layout schemes of tillage machines, experimental sample

Citation: Rzaliyev A, Bekmukhametov S, Goloborodko V, Begaly D. Types and parameters of combined tool implements for perspective soil-saving technologies. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):609-17.

Push-out bond strength of retrograde root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth: calcium enriched mixture cement versus Biodentine
Alireza Darvish, Mohammadreza Amin, Farhad Haji Seyed Aboutorabi, Sare Aflaki, Nima Sheikh Davoodi, Arash Ghaffari, Meysam Khodadade, Sanaz Asgarian, Talaye Katebi

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Abstract

Backgrounds and aim: Root-end filling materials are applied to provide an apical seal in apicoectomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and Biodentine in extracted humanbeing teeth.
Materials and Methods: This in vitro, experimental study evaluated 40 extracted sound single-rooted mandibular premolars with mature apices. After disinfection process, the teeth were decoronated to acquire roots with 13 mm length. The root canals were instrumented using hand and rotary files and Gates-Glidden drills and filled using lateral compaction technique. The apical 3 mm of root ends was cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the root. The apical region was prepared to 3 mm depth using the tip of an ultrasonic instrument. The samples were then randomly divided into two groups (n=20) for root-end sealing with CEM cement and Biodentine. To assess the push-out bond strength, the apical end was cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tooth to obtain circular segments with 2±0.001 mm thickness. The push-out bond strength was determined by a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using SPSS via chi-square test.
Results: The mean bond strength of Biodentine was significantly higher than that of CEM cement (P=0.001). The maximum and minimum bond strength values were 20 MPa and 14.7 MPa for Biodentine and 13.8 MPa and 11.7 MPa for CEM cement, respectively.
Conclusion: Considering the high push-out bond strength of Biodentine, it can be successfully used as a retrograde root-end filling material in endodontic surgery.

Keywords: push-out bond strength, calcium-enriched mixture cement, tricalcium silicate

Citation: Darvish A, Amin M, Aboutorabi FHS, Aflaki S, Davoodi NS, Ghaffari A, et al. Push-out bond strength of retrograde root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth: calcium enriched mixture cement versus Biodentine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):619-24.

Method of fineness adjustment of shredded particles of stem fodder in open-type machines
Tokhtar Abilzhanuly

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Abstract

As a result of theoretical studies, analytical expressions were obtained for determining the average length of shredded particles of stem fodder, depending on the distance between the faces of adjacent hammers, and also to determine the mass fraction of shredded particles with the required size depending on the number of encounters of rows of hammers with circulating mass in the grinding chamber, and depending on the number of rows of counter-hammers installed in the grinding chamber. The results of calculation showed that the average length of shredded particles corresponds to the distance between the faces of adjacent hammers. In order to verify the reliability of theoretical studies, experimental studies have been carried out at various rows of counter-hammers. The change in the mass part of fraction with a particle length of 30 mm, depending on the number of counter-hammer series, with sufficient accuracy (1.3-3.1%) coincided with a theoretical dependence, which confirms the reliability of the obtained analytical expressions. During the experiment, the required power was determined for the process of hay chopping (grasses with a moisture content of 17%). Nature of the change in the required power in the shredding process and values of the mass part of the required fraction are same, i.e. with an increase in the number of rows of counter-hammers to 2 rows, more intensive change occurs, and with a further increase in the number of rows of counter-hammers, the change in the above factors equally decreases, i.e. they have the same functional dependency. All of this speaks of sufficient reliability of theoretical research, and it can be argued that a method has been developed for adjusting the fineness of shredded stem fodder in open-type machines.

Keywords: fodder shredders, destruction probability, rows of counter-hammers, stem fodder, shredding fineness, mass fraction of shredded particles

Citation: Abilzhanuly T. Method of fineness adjustment of shredded particles of stem fodder in open-type machines. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):625-31.

Environmental health investigation of the partial purification and study of Guanase in sera of hepatitis B and C patients
Mohammed N. Rasheed, Susan J. Ali

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Abstract

Viral hepatitis is one of the most common type of diseases in the world, it is associated with high risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer, the objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of enzyme guanase and purifying enzyme in patients with hepatitis B and C virus. The study included 63 hepatitis B and C patients, it also included 28 people who had no infection and a similar age for patients where it was considered a control group, the age group ranged from 25-55 years for each group of patients and control, measure the level of guanase enzyme in both the patients and control group, the study also included purification of the enzyme from hepatitis B and C patients using ammonium sulphate, ion exchange technology and gel filtering technology, using DEAE-Cellulose and Sepharose-6B, samples were collected between April 2018 and July 2018 at Kirkuk general hospital. The results showed that there was significant increase (P 0.05) in the level of guanase activity in hepatitis B patient compared with control group and a highly significant increase (P 0.05) in the level of guanase activity in hepatitis C patient compared with control group. There was no difference in guanase activity in serum of HBV and HCV both in male and female the present study included partial purification of guanase from serum of hepatitis B and C patients using salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration by using DEAE- Cellulose and sepharose-6B,the purification degree of HBV and HCV by ammonium sulfate precipitation was(4.358) fold, while it was by Ion exchange (8.939) fold and by gel filtration (39.446) fold, while enzyme yield was (64.084%,50.5%, 41.535%) respectively, and specific activity was (226.179,463.914, 8921,99) pg/ml, also this study included the determination of molecular weight of the purified guanase in serum of HBV and HCV by using standard plot of proteins, the results showed that molecular weight was (71.131KD), the study concluded that guanase can be considered as a predictive function in diagnosis and follow-up of viral hepatitis before and after infection.

Keywords: Guanase, hepatitis, molecular weight of enzyme

Citation: Rasheed MN, Ali SJ. Environmental health investigation of the partial purification and study of Guanase in sera of hepatitis B and C patients. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):633-8.

Study of the anaerobia fermentation of native and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its use in brewing
I. F. Bayas-Morejón, A. Tigre-León, R. Ramón-Curay, J. Guamán, J. Segura

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Abstract

In this work, it was proposed to obtain beer using native yeasts. Thus, 10 samples of wheat flour and 10 samples of tangerine crust were analyzed by culture in plate with selective medium, after this analysis only two strains with typical characteristics to Saccharomyces were isolated from the tangerine crust (TC), these isolated were purified and used in the fermentation process. The physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the obtained beer were analyzed and compared with a control beer (commercial yeast). In alcoholic grade (GL), the results obtained were 4,78 in TC 7 beer and 4,77 in TC10, while in commercial beer it was 5,27%. The parameters of density and CO2 were 0,90g / cm3 in TC7 and TC10, these results were like those obtained in the control. Finally, the beer had a high acceptance by the tasters.

Keywords: beer, anaerobic fermentation, S. cerevisiae

Citation: Bayas-Morejón IF, Tigre-León A, Ramón-Curay R, Guamán J, Segura J. Study of the anaerobia fermentation of native and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its use in brewing. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):639-43.

Analyzing changes in elemental composition of ecosystems under man-induced impact
Aleksey Nakhapetyan, Valentina Zubkova, Albina Gaponenko, Valeriia Erokhova, Natalia Belozubova, Vera Reutskaya

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Abstract

Background: With the modern trend of urbanization of areas, the question about its impact on ecosystems becomes quite urgent. In spite of positive aspects arising at the result of urbanization, there is a probability of elemental composition of ecosystems being changed. These changes can not only disrupt the internal exchange processes but also impair the population health.
Objective: The relevance of the research is associated with the necessity of studying the changes in elemental composition of soil – the ecosystem constituent impacting the human health. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at identifying any change in elemental composition of ecosystems and their influence on human diseases.
Materials and Methods: The methodology of this research is based on assessing the pollution of soils that is viewed from a twofold standpoint: the danger of negative consequences emerging for soil as the basic component of ecosystems due to its stability impaired and that for the population health. The leading method for studying this problem is the analysis of soil samples that ensures an integrated view of any change occurring in the elemental composition of soils.
Results: In the paper, the results of reconnaissance surveys are presented that allow confirming the process of rapid urbanization, changes in the main soil indicators such as pH, humus, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, are identified, and grounds are given for the interrelation between the results obtained during laboratory studies and the impact on the human organism.
Conclusion: In this paper, the main methods of studying the elemental composition, the results and possible consequences for the population health are worded relying on the foreign and Russian literature sources. The materials of the paper are of practical value for researchers in the field of urban ecology, students of the ecology focus area, and scientists dealing with the impact of urbanization on the population health.

Keywords: ecosystem services, elemental composition, urbanization, man-induced impact, ecosystem goods, health of the population

Citation: Nakhapetyan A, Zubkova V, Gaponenko A, Erokhova V, Belozubova N, Reutskaya V. Analyzing changes in elemental composition of ecosystems under man-induced impact. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):645-0.