2016, Volume 10, Issue 1 (Volume 10, Issue 1, January-December 2016)

Diversity and distribution of macrofungi in the Eastern Himalayan ecosystem
Prakash Pradhan, Arun Kumar Dutta, Soumitra Paloi, Anirban Roy, Krishnendu Acharya

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Abstract

Background: Eastern Himalayas have rich biodiversity but are threatened by anthropogenic activities and periodic natural calamities. The present investigation focused on the cryptogamic group of macrofungi in the Darjeeling Himalayas which are extremely diverse and ecologically significant, but have received very little attention from a conservation perspective.
Material and Methods: Investigations were conducted during June-September of 2013-2014 in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India, wherein, local macrofungi were sampled in mixed to monoculture forests using 50 random transects 100x2 m. Fruit bodies were studied, collected,
identified in the laboratory and deposited at Calcutta University Herbarium. Sampling units were georeferenced and physico-climatic factors were derived from the WORLDCLIM database.
Results: The macrofungi belonged to 98 species representing 72 genera and 47 families; 58.16% were saprotrophs, 17.34% were ectomycorrhizal and 10.2% were parasitic. The most species-rich families were Russulaceae with 9 Russula species followed by Marasmiaceae with 4 Marasmius species and Coprinaceae with 3 Coprinus species. Most of the ectomycorrhizal macrofungi were hosted by natural stands of Quercus, Lithocarpus and Betula. The only species with zooparasitic capability were Cordyceps nutans and C. militaris. The relative abundance of only 6 saprotrophs communicatively accounted for 52.84% of the total abundance.
Conclusions: The findings showed that this region is rich in macrofungal diversity intricately linked to the functioning of the local ecosystem. However, a high proportion of saprotrophs compared to ectomycorrhizal species suggests disturbance and degradation of regional forests. Mycofloristically important localities like Lolaygaon, Sonada, and Lameydhura in the Darjeeling district should be prioritized for further studies and future conservation action.

Keywords: canonical correspondence analysis, conservation, Darjeeling, Himalaya, mushrooms

Citation: Pradhan P, Dutta AK, Paloi S, Roy A, Acharya K. Diversity and distribution of macrofungi in the Eastern Himalayan ecosystem. Eurasia J Biosci. 2016;10(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2016.10.0.l

Histological evidence of the heart and ovarian vessels in the short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma
Sinlapachai Senarat, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul, Jes Kettratad

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Abstract

Background: Limited research has been reported in the basic information about the structural organizations of heart and ovarian vessel. Hence, produced herein is the first report on the heart, aortas, ovarian blood vessel and blood cells of the short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma.
Material and Methods: All fish were collected in the upper Gulf of Thailand and then they were elucidated under histological techniques.
Results: The results revealed that the heart structure contained four parts including the sinus venosus, the atrium, the ventricle and the bulbus arteriosus. Several vessels including arteriole, capillary, small vein and lymphatic vessel were also commonly seen among oogenic stages of the R.
brachysoma. Within capillaries, according to ultrastructural levels, various blood cells including red blood cell, eosinophil and lymphocyte were also seen. The systematic ovarian vessels especially arterial system could be classified into two patterns according to different seasons. During the nonbreeding season, the arteriole at each ovigerous fold protruded in to the ovigerous fold and gradually changed into numerous capillaries. All vessel types increased in both amount and size, especially in capillaries, where their dilation contained various red blood cells that appeared closely around the vitellogenic stage in the breeding season. Nevertheless, the systematic venous vessel was not easily observed in ovarian tissue under the light microscopic analysis.
Conclusions: The hearth with consisting of four chambers including the sinus venosus, the soft atrium, the muscular ventricle and the bulbus arteriosus as well as the ovarian vessels throughout the systematic ovarian vessels were present in the R. brachysoma.

Keywords: blood vessel, ovary, Rastrelliger brachysoma, Thailand

Citation: Senarat S, Jiraungkoorskul W, Kettratad J. Histological evidence of the heart and ovarian vessels in the short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma. Eurasia J Biosci. 2016;10(1):13-21. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2016.10.0.2

An investigation on determining heavy metal accumulation in plants growing at Kumalar Mountain in Turkey
Ibrahim Şahin, Ekrem Akcicek, Ozal Guner, Yunus Doğan, İlker Ugulu

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Abstract

Background: Biomonitoring approach has been widely used to evaluate the environmental quality and detect the presence of inorganic and organic pollutants that are not routinely measured by conventional monitoring in the air.
Material and Methods: Twenty-five plant samples were obtained from twenty-three species used as biomonitors and found at two different altitudes in Kumalar Mountain with the aim of examining the levels of heavy metals. The concentrations of these elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The levels of the heavy metals Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn (pg g 1, dry weight) in plant samples supplied from different altitudes of Kumalar Mountain were assessed.
Results: As a result of this study, the following mean concentrations were determined at different altitudes of Kumalar Mountain: The contents of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn (pg g 1, dry weight) ranged from 51.902 to 2960.650, 4.247 to 194.646, 0.927 to 21.024,113.938 to 4289.115, 26.832 to 635.724 and 4.424 to 75.822, respectively. No Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Sn values were determined in the samples collected from both heights.
Conclusions: The accumulation of heavy metals such as iron (Fe) in some plant samples was found to be significantly higher than the normal accumulation levels.

Keywords: biomonitoring, heavy metals, ICP-OES, Kumalar Mountain, plants, Turkey

Citation: Şahin I, Akcicek E, Guner O, Doğan Y, Ugulu İ. An investigation on determining heavy metal accumulation in plants growing at Kumalar Mountain in Turkey. Eurasia J Biosci. 2016;10(1):22-9. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2016.10.0.3

Protective effects of extra virgin olive oil against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in Wistar albino rats
Latifa Ishaq Khayyat

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Abstract

Background: Paracetamol is an extensively used analgesic and antipyretic drug which Is widely available without a prescription. An overdose of paracetamol can cause liver damage. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) Is an organic product which has an antioxidant effect against liver toxicity. The aim of the present study was to Investigate the protective effect of EVOO against the hepatotoxlclty Induced by an overdose of paracetamol In the liver of rats.
Material and Methods: Forty adult male rats were used In this study, and were divided Into four groups often rats. Group 1: rats were given distilled water orally and were considered the control group; group 2: rats were given paracetamol orally at a dally dose of 650 mg/kg body weight; group 3: rats were given EVOO orally at a dally dose of 2 mL/kg body weight; group 4: rats were given paracetamol orally (650 mg/kg) and EVOO (2 mL/kg body weight). Blood and liver samples were collected after 15 days of treatment and were prepared for histological, ultrastructural and
physiological analyses.
Results: Several hlstopathologlcal and ultrastructural changes were observed In group 2, In which rats received paracetamol only. Including cell degeneration, lipid droplets, pyknotlc nuclei, disrupted rER, proliferated sER, changes In mitochondrial structure and congested and expanded blood vessels. Moreover, a significant Increase (p<0.05) In liver AST, ALT and ALP enzyme activities were recorded for group 2. Contrastingly, rats treated with EVOO and paracetamol showed a marked
Improvement In histology, ultrastructure of hepatocytes and blood parameters. A significant decrease (p<0.05) In AST, ALT and ALP were also observed In this group compared with group 2.
Conclusions: The results obtained In this study Indicated that EVOO has a protective effect against paracetamol overdose-induced hepatotoxlclty.

Keywords: extra virgin olive oil, hepatotoxlclty, oxidative stress, paracetamol

Citation: Khayyat LI. Protective effects of extra virgin olive oil against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Eurasia J Biosci. 2016;10(1):30-40. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2016.10.0.4

Genetic diversity in Iranian populations of Togninia minima, one of the causal agents of leaf stripe disease on grapevines
Mahdi Arzanlou, Abolfazl Narmani

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Abstract

Background: Togninia minima Is the main fungal species commonly associated with grapevine leaf stripe disease (GLSD), worldwide. This species Is best known by Its conldlal state In nature. No data are available on the Incidence of an active sexual cycle within the populations of this species In many grapevine producing countries Including Iran.
Material and Methods: Genetic variability within and among the populations of T. minima was analyzed using M13 DNA markers. Fifty one T. minima Isolates originating from symptomatic grapevines In north and northwestern regions of Iran were subjected to polymorphism analysis using M13 markers, namely M13mp 18F, M13mp 18R and M13 mlnlsatelllte. Correlation between the genetic similarity, the geographic origin and mating Identity of the Isolates was evaluated.
Results: M13 mlnlsatelllte produced the 38 polymorphic bands, while M13 mp 18F and M13 mp 18R yielded 27 and 26 bands, respectively. Significant genetic distances were found among the Isolates from the same location and different parts of the country. No correlation was found among the genetic similarity groups with geographic origin and mating Identity of the Isolates. Isolates with different mating Identity sometimes clustered In the same group.
Conclusion: Our data support the presence of a sexual cycle and the ongoing recombination within populations of the species In the sampled areas.

Keywords: esca, heterothalllsm, M13 marker, sexual cycle, Togninia minima

Citation: Arzanlou M, Narmani A. Genetic diversity in Iranian populations of Togninia minima, one of the causal agents of leaf stripe disease on grapevines. Eurasia J Biosci. 2016;10(1):41-50. https://doi.org/10.5053/ejobios.2016.10.0.5