Uno stacko: a game to increase the elderly cognitive function
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 1, pp. 1703-1707
  • Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


The elderly experience physical, mental, and social decline gradually, one of which is a decline in cognitive function. Efforts to improve the cognitive function in the elderly can given by Uno Stacko game intervention. This study aimed to determine the effect of the Uno Stacko game on improving cognitive function in the elderly. This research used a quasy-experiment pre-post-test with a control group design. The sampling technique used in this study is purposive sampling. The samples in this study were 36 respondents who were divided into two groups; the treatment group (n=18) and the control group (n=18). The independent variable was the uno stacko game. The dependent variable was the cognitive function. The instrument in this study was the mini-mental state exam (MMSE) questionnaire. The data were analyzed using paired t-test dan independent t-test (α=0.05). Data analysis by paired T-test in the treatment group obtained p=0.000, which means there was an increase in cognitive function before and after the intervention of the uno stacko game, while in the control group p= 0.542, which means there was no change in cognitive function in the elderly. Independent T-test statistical test results obtained p= 0.000. Namely, there was a significant difference between the post-test of the treatment and the control group. The results of the study are an influence of the uno stacko game on the improvement of cognitive function in the elderly. Uno stacko game has powers that can stimulate aspects of cognitive function in the elderly. Nurses can apply the game as a non-pharmacological alternative therapy to improve the cognitive function of the elderly who live in nursing homes.


  • Anto EJ, Siagian LO, Siahaan JM, (2019) The relationship between hypertension and cognitive function impairment in the elderly. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 7: 1440–1445.
  • Budson AE, Price BH. (2005) Memory Dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 352: 692–699.
  • Caporusso N, Mkrtchyan L, Badia L. (2009) A multimodal interface device for online board games designed for sight-impaired people. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 14: 248–254.
  • Catani M, Dell’Acqua F, de Schotten MT. (2013) A revised limbic system model for memory, emotion and behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 37: 1724–1737.
  • Clemenson GD, Stark CEL. (2015) Virtual Environmental Enrichment through Video Games Improves Hippocampal-Associated Memory. J Neurosci. 35: 16116–16125.
  • Dartigues JF, Foubert-Samier A, Le Goff M, (2013) Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study. BMJ Open. 3: e002998.
  • Defrancesco M, Marksteiner J, Deisenhammer EA, Hinterhuber H, Weiss,EM, (2009). Association of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and depression. Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation: Organ der Gesellschaft Osterreichischer Nervenarzte und Psychiater, 23(3), 144-150.
  • Depkes RI. (2013) Profil Kesehatan Indonesia 2012. Jakarta Dep Kesehat Republik Indonesia.
  • Effendy E, Prasanty N, Utami N. (2019) The effects of brain gym on quality of sleep, anxiety in elderly at nursing home care case Medan. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 7: 2595–2598.
  • Fitri FI, Rambe AS, (2018) Correlation between hypertension and cognitive function in elderly. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 125, No. 1, p. 012177). IOP Publishing.
  • Handayani T, Rachma N. (2013) Pesantren Lansia sebagai Upaya Meminimalkan Risiko Penurunan Fungsi Kognitif pada Lansia di Balai Rehabilitasi Sosial Lansia Unit II Pucang Gading Semarang. J Keperawatan Komunitas; 1.
  • Harada CN, Natelson Love MC, Triebel KL. (2013) Normal Cognitive Aging. Clin Geriatr Med. 29: 737–752.
  • Idrus F, Limoa E, Honest I, (2019) The effectiveness of the combination therapy of risperidone, group psychotherapy and occupational therapy on cognitive functions and the quality of life of schizophrenia patients. Indian J Public Heal Res Dev. 10: 649–654.
  • Infodatin Kemenkes K, (2016) Situasi lanjut usia (Lansia) di Indonesia. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.
  • Khanmurzina RR, Cherdymova EI, Guryanova TY, Toriia RA, Sukhodolova EM, Tararina LI (2020) Computer Games Influence on Everyday Social Practices of Students-Gamers. Contemporary Educational Technology, 11(1): 11-19.
  • Kozier B, (2015) Fundamental Of Nursing Concept, Process, and Practice. 8th Edition. 8 Edition. New Jersey: Preason Prentice Hall.
  • Kushariyadi K. (2017) Memory Stimulation, Intervention Increase Elderly Cognitive Function. J Ners. 8: 317–329.
  • Lumbantobing SM. (2008) Neurologi klinik: Pemeriksaan fisik dan mental Cetakan ke-19. Balai Penerbit FKUI, Jakarta.
  • Mariani D, Muzasti RA, Thamrin A. (2019) The relationship between quality of sleep and quality of life of patients in medan, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 7: 1794–1797.
  • Miller CA. (2018) Nursing for wellness in older adults 6th ed. United State Am Lippincort William Wilkins.
  • Nugroho HW. (2009) Komunikasi dalam keperawatan gerontik. EGC.
  • Prawesti RE, Djamin R, Perkasa MF. (2018) The analysis of hearing loss and deafness of elderly with Indonesia version of hearing handicap inventory for the elderly-screening (Hhie-s). Indian J Public Heal Res Dev. 9: 1434–1438.
  • Putra GSM, (2008) Reminiscence Therapy with Therapeutic Methods Group Activity Improve Elderly’s Cognitive Function. J Ners. 125–133.
  • Rambe AS, Fitri FI. (2017) Correlation between the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (Moca-INA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Elderly. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 5: 915–919.
  • Rilianto B. (2015) Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): Transisi dari Penuaaan Normal Menjadi Alzheimer. Cme. 42: 341–344.
  • Rolls ET. (2015) Limbic systems for emotion and for memory, but no single limbic system. Cortex. 62: 119–157.
  • Situmeang RF V, Wahjoepramono EJ, Kaelan C, (2016) Genetic risk factor APOEε4 associates with plasma amyloid beta in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Med J Indones. 25: 44–50.
  • Statistik BP, (2015) Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Kelompok Umur dan Jenis Kelamin di Provinsi Jawa Timur, Surabaya, Diakses pada 11 Juni 2017.
  • Surabaya D. (2015) Profil kesehatan tahun 2015. Surabaya Pemerintah Kota Surabaya, Dinas Kesehatan.
  • Tadjudin NS, Tanra AJ, Islam AA, (2018) Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with cognitive functions in elderly. Indian J Public Heal Res Dev. 9: 711–716.
  • Ulfa Z, Nurjannah A. (2013) Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi fungsi kognitif usia lanjut di UPTD Rumoh Seujahtera Geunaseh Sayang Ulee Kareng Kota Banda Aceh. Skripsi Progr Stud Pendidik Dr Fak Kedokt Univ Syiah Kuala Darussalam Banda Aceh.
  • Utari RAD, Siregar MFG, Hartono H, (2018) Relationship between the administration of estradiol valerate 2 mg and norgestrel 0.5 mg and cognitive function which assessed with IQCODE on menopausal paramedic at Adam Malik General Hospital Medan. G Ital di Ostet e Ginecol. 40: 184–189.
  • Wade C, Tavris C, Garry M. (2014) Invitation to psychology. Pearson Higher Ed.
  • World Health Organization, (2011) Global Health and Aging (NIH publication no. 11-7737). National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Yusuf A, Indarwati R, Jayanto AD. (2017) Brain Gym Improves Cognitive Function for Elderly. J Ners. 5: 79–86.
  • Yusuf A, Nihayati HE, Abidin Z. (2017) Cognitive Therapy Decrease the Level of Depression. J Ners. 3: 163–169.
  • Zavidić T, Lovrinić Đ (2018) Elderly Patients Treated in Selected Family Medicine Offices in Central Istria And Their Habits. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations, 9(1): 34-39.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.