Toxicity and feeding inhibition of neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) against Plutella xylostella larvae on cabbage

Abstract

Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.), one of the Brassicaceae family, was widely planted in Central Sulawesi and was favored by the community. One of the main pests that attacks the Brassicaceae family is Plutella xylostella and it can cause damage to cabbage plants ranging from 85% - 100%. Neem leaf extract contains azadirachtin compound which is toxic and can affect the development of live larvae of P. xylostella larvae in test insects. The objective of this research was to determine the toxicity, feeding inhibition and morphological changes in larvae after the application of neem leaf extract. This research was done at the laboratory of pest and plant disease, faculty of agriculture, Tadulako University from September 2018 to February 2019. This research used the Sandwich method, consisted of 5 treatments, namely 0% concentration (control), 15%, 25%, 35%, and 45% which were repeated 3 times each, and the number of larvae for each treatment used 20 tails (3 instar larvae were used). Variables observed were larvae mortality, feeding inhibition, and morphological changes of larvae. The results showed that neem leaf extract could cause mortality of P. xylostella larvae by 50% with LC50 value of 20.73%, and, at 45% concentration, larvae mortality reached 95%. Moreover, it could inhibit the activity of feeding larvae with a value of R2 0.96 or 96% and affect the morphological changes of larvae, which turned from bright green to pale green with a body shape that was short and looked swollen at the abdomen.

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