Abstract

Background: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) discovery in the brain tissue demonstrates clearly that vitamin D has a significant role in the development of the brain. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between serum vitamin D levels and cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients.
Methods: This was an observational analytic study with cross-sectional design. Serum vitamin D levels were measured using VIDAS® 25 OH Vitamin D Total (VITD). Cognitive deficits were measured using Indonesian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (ScoRSvI). 
Results: This study recruited 54 patients from outpatient and inpatient unit of psychiatric. Most of subjects were male as many as 25 (65.8%). Mean age of subjects was 34.84 years. Mean duration of illness was 10.58±7.4 years. There were 17 (45%) subjects experienced serum vitamin D deficiency, and 22 (58%) study subjects had cognitive deficits on the global impression of ScoRSvI assessment by rater. There was a significant negative correlation (p <0.001) between serum vitamin D levels and SCoRSvI values from the impression of global observations, ScoRSvI patients, and ScoRSvI informants.
Conclusion: The lower serum vitamin D levels, the higher score of cognitive deficits from SCoRSvI. The higher SCoRSvI score shows the more severe cognitive deficit for patients with schizophrenia.

References

  • Afrina R, Karimah A, (2019) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain. Biomolecular and Health Science Journal 2(2): 129-134.
  • Akbar NL, Effendy E, Amin MM, (2018) Vitamin D and plain type: A study of male patients with schizophrenia. In: IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 125. Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012180
  • Amaral AD, Calhau C, Coelho R, (2014) Schizophrenia: implications of vitamin D deficit on brain development. IJCNMH 1(16): 1-14.
  • Bowie CR, Harvey PD, (2006) Cognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment 2(4): 531.
  • Catherine, Amin MM, Effendy E, (2018) The relationship between intelligence and cognitive function in schizophrenic. In: IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 125. Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012184
  • Coymak A (2019) An Experimental Study of the Effect of Computer Assisted Learning on Metacognitive Performance Development in Psychology Teaching. Contemporary Educational Technology, 10(1): 94-105. https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.512539
  • Eserian JK, (2013) Vitamin D as an effective treatment approach for drug abuse and addiction. Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas 7(2): 35-39.
  • Falkenberg LE, Westerhausen R, Craven AR, Johnsen E, Kroken RA, Specht K, Hugdahl K, (2014) Impact of glutamate levels on neuronal response and cognitive abilities in schizophrenia. NeuroImage: Clinical 4: 576-584.
  • Graham KA, Keefe RS, Lieberman JA, Calikoglu AS, Lansing KM, Perkins DO, (2015) Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains in people with first‐episode schizophrenia. Early intervention in psychiatry 9(5): 397-405.
  • Hidayati AN, Febriyana N, (2014) Prenatal factors on schizophrenia. Jurnal Psikiatri Surabaya 3(1): 1-10.
  • Homayoun S, Stip E, Luck D, Nadeau-Marcott F, (2011) Subjective and objective cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia-is there a link? Frontiers in psychology 2: 148.
  • Idrus F, Limoa E, Honest I, Ganda IJ, Tammasse J, Syamsuddin S, Lisal ST, (2019) The effectiveness of the combination therapy of risperidone, group psychotherapy and occupational therapy on cognitive functions and the quality of life of schizophrenia patients. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development 10(10): 649-654. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2019.02887.0
  • Kesby JP, Cui X, Burne THJ, Eyles DW, (2013) Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 7: 111.
  • Krishnadas R, Moore BP, Nayak A, Patel RR, (2007) Relationship of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia in remission to disability: a cross-sectional study in an Indian sample. Annals of general psychiatry 6(1): 19.
  • Liaury K, Miyaoka T, Tsumori T, Furuya M, Hashioka S, Wake R, Tsuchie K, Fukushima M, Limoa E, Tanra AJ, Horiguchi J, (2014) Minocycline improves recognition memory and attenuates microglial activation in Gunn rat: A possible hyperbilirubinemia-induced animal model of schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 50: 184-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.12.017
  • McGrath JJ, Burne TH, Féron F, Mackay-Sim A, Eyles DW, (2010) Developmental vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia: a 10-year update. Schizophrenia bulletin 36(6): 1073-1078.
  • Miftahussurur M, Nusi IA, Graham DY, Yamaoka Y, (2017) Helicobacter, hygiene, atopy, and asthma. Frontiers in microbiology 8: 1034.
  • Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia, (2011) Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2010. Jakarta: Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia
  • Mutsatsa S, Mushore M, Ncube K, Currid T, (2013) Vitamin D: the role of the sunshine vitamin. British Journal of Mental Health Nursing 2(4): 182-187.
  • Patwardhan VG, Mughal ZM, Chiplonkar SA, Webb AR, Kift R, Khadilkar V V, Padidela R, Khadilkar A V, (2018) Duration of casual sunlight exposure necessary for adequate Vitamin D status in Indian Men. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism 22(2): 249.
  • Samoes B, Silveira C, (2017) The role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatry 7(4): 362-369.
  • Setiati S, Oemardi M, Sutrisna B, (2007) The role of ultraviolet-B from sun exposure on vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone level in elderly women in Indonesia. Asian J Gerontol Geriatr 2: 126-132.
  • Sotodeh-Asl N, Tamadon M-R, Malek F, Zahmatkesh M, (2014) Vitamin D deficiency and psychological disorders. J Parathyroid Dis 2(1): 21-25.
  • Stahl SM, Stahl SM, (2013) Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: neuroscientific basis and practical applications. Cambridge university press
  • Utami N, Effendy E, Amin MM, (2018) BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. In: IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science Vol. 125. Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012181

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.