The possibility of using physiological indicators for diagnostic of stability of wood plants in the desert zone of mangistau

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to identify the possibility of using physiological parameters of the growth and development of woody plants as indicators of their resistance to extra-arid conditions of the Mangistau desert. Using generally accepted representative methods for 21 species of deciduous and coniferous trees and shrubs, we determined the seasonal dynamics of transpiration and leaf water content, chlorophyll concentration and heat resistance. By the level of transpiration moisture consumption, all introducers are ranked into 3 groups: low transpiration (<250 mg/g of raw leaf weight per hour), medium transpiration (250-500) and high transpiration (> 500). A high correlation was established between the transpiration intensity (TI) and the water content of leaves of woody plants (r = 0.79). Soil moisture determines from 11.6 to 43.6% changes in transpiration rate (r = 0.34-0.66). Reliable at a significance level of 5% is also the close connection of TI with relative humidity (r = -0.59) and air temperature (r = 0.46). It is statistically unreliable with the indicator of illumination (r = 0.19). For most introducers, seasonal TI dynamics have the appearance of a single-peak curve with a maximum in June. For the daily transpiration rhythm, three types are distinguished: “rising” (from morning to evening), “falling” (from morning to evening) and “variable” (with a maximum at noon). The intensity of the transpiration process, due to significant variability and multifactorial nature, cannot be ranked among the criteria for resistance of woody plants. At the same time, a significant relationship was established between the biological stability of introducers and the coefficient of variation of IT. With an increase in its values, the tolerance of plants to arid environmental conditions usually increases due to their increased ability to self-regulate water metabolism. For the seasonal variation, the chlorophyll content is characterized by a two-peak curve with peaks in June and September. In the most biologically stable species (Ulmus pumila L., Elaeagnus oxycarpa Schlecht.), Its concentration is less susceptible to seasonal fluctuations. Consequently, the chlorophyll content cannot yet be recognized as a reliable indicator of plant resistance, since it strongly depends on the bioecological properties of introducers, especially in conditions of a desert habitat. According to the degree of heat resistance, plants are ranked in 3 groups: “low” (50 ° C) –3 species; “Medium” (60 ° С) –8 and “high” (70 ° С) –3 taxa. As a genetically fixed bioecological indicator, slightly susceptible to intraspecific changes, it can very well be used as a diagnostic sign of the introduction value of plants in arid conditions.

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