AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Tontowiputro DK, Sargowo D, Tjokroprawiro A, Rifa’i M. The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1), 967-971.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Tontowiputro et al., 2020)
Reference: Tontowiputro, D. K., Sargowo, D., Tjokroprawiro, A., & Rifa’i, M. (2020). The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), 967-971.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Tontowiputro et al., 2020)
Reference: Tontowiputro, Dicky Kurniawan, Djanggan Sargowo, Askandar Tjokroprawiro, and Muhaimin Rifa’i. "The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2020 14 no. 1 (2020): 967-971.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Tontowiputro et al., 2020)
Reference: Tontowiputro, D. K., Sargowo, D., Tjokroprawiro, A., and Rifa’i, M. (2020). The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), pp. 967-971.

MLA
In-text citation: (Tontowiputro et al., 2020)
Reference: Tontowiputro, Dicky Kurniawan et al. "The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 14, no. 1, 2020, pp. 967-971.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Tontowiputro DK, Sargowo D, Tjokroprawiro A, Rifa’i M. The interaction of β-glucan on Dectin-1 receptor or TLR-2 might have the potency to activate function of Treg Cell and production of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):967-1.

Abstract

Objectives: Atherosclerosis formed due to the accumulation of the fibrous tissues in the vascular wall and gradually become thrombus. Agaricus brasiliensis known as a traditional drug for lifestyle-related diseases, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The aim of this research was to examine the potency of Agaricus brasiliensis to reduce the excessive inflammatory response that occurs in the process of atherosclerosis. The extract of Agaricus brasiliensis contains β-glucans and Agiritin that may bound to the Dectin-1 receptor and TLR-2. Methods: Therefore, we examine the interaction of the molecules by using bioinformatic. We have docked β-glucans and Agaritin to the active site of the Dectin-1 receptor and TLR-2. Results: The result of the analysis indicated the binding affinity of between TLR2/1 and 1,3-1,6 β-glucan or agaritin showed higher compared to positive control, Tri-Acylated Lipopeptide. Besides β-glucan 1,3-1,6 bound to Dectin-1 has similar binding affinity compared to the positive control, Beta-D-Glucose. Conclusions: It could be concluded that β-glucan 1,3-1,6 and agaritin might enable to activate the TLR2. However, Dectin-1 receptor might only be activated by 1,3-1,6. β-glucan.

References

  • Brown GD (2006) Dectin-1: a signalling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nat Rev Immunol 6: 33-43.
  • CFR Ferreira I, Vaz A J, Vasconcelos MH, Martins A (2010) Compounds from wild mushrooms with antitumor potential. Anti-Cancer Agents Med Chem 10:424-36.
  • Chistiakov DA, Sobenin IA, Orekhov AN (2013) Regulatory T cells in atherosclerosis and strategies to induce the endogenous atheroprotective immune response. Immunol Lett 151: 10-22.
  • Dillon S, Agrawal S, Banerjee K, Letterio J, Denning TL, Oswald-Richter K, et al. (2006) Yeast zymosan, a stimulus for TLR2 and dectin-1, induces regulatory antigen-presenting cells and immunological tolerance. J Clin Investig 116: 916.
  • Farhat K, Riekenberg S, Heine H, Debarry J, Lang R, Mages J, et al. (2008) Heterodimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 expands the ligand spectrum but does not lead to differential signaling. J Leukoc Biol 83: 692-701.
  • Firenzuoli F, Gori L, Lombardo G (2008) The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei murrill: review of literature and pharmaco-toxicological problems. Evid-Based Complement Altern Med 5: 3-15.
  • Førland DT, Johnson E, Saetre L, Lyberg T, Lygren I, Hetland G (2011) Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on expression of cytokines and calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Scand J Immunol 73:66-75.
  • Gonzaga ML, Bezerra DP, Alves AP, de Alencar NM, de Oliveira Mesquita R, Lima MW, et al. (2009) In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by an α-(1→ 4)-glucan–β-(1→ 6)-glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazei Murill. J Nat Med 63: 32-40.
  • Goodridge HS, Underhill DM (2008) Fungal recognition by TLR2 and Dectin-1. Handb Exp Pharmacol: 183:87.
  • Gopalakrishnan, S. B., Kalaiarasi, T., & Gnanendra, S. (2016). Evaluation of phytochemical constituents of the fruits of cucumis sativus linn. for their hepatoprotective activity by molecular docking studies. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1), 12-22.
  • Heriansyah T, Siswanto BB, Santoso A (2016) The Effect of Darapladip on Lipid Profile, Insulin, Ox-LDL Serum Level and PVAT Thickness at Atherogenesis Development in DM Tipe 2 Rats Model. Int J Pharm Tech Res 9: 1-8.
  • Hsu CH, Hwang KC, Chiang YH, Chou P (2008) The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill extract normalizes liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Altern Complement Med 14: 299-301.
  • Jeurink PV, Noguera CL, Savelkoul HF, Wichers HJ (2008) Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int Immunopharmacol 8:1124-33.
  • Karumuthil-Melethil S, Perez N, Li R, Vasu C (2008) Induction of innate immune response through TLR2 and dectin 1 prevents type 1 diabetes. J Immunol 181: 8323-8334.
  • Ketelhuth DF, Hansson GK (2011) Cellular immunity, low-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis: break of tolerance in the artery wall. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 106: 779-786.
  • Khaled FM, Azza AA, Manal FS, Effat IS (2015) Encapsulation of Nano Beta-Glucan for Preservation of functionality and Targeted Delivery of Bioactive Food Component. Int J ChemTech Res 8: 587-598.
  • Kim YW, Kim KH, Choi HJ, Lee DS (2005) Anti-diabetic activity of β-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei. Biotechnol Lett 27: 483-487.
  • Lakshminarayanan V, Ponnuswamy R, Rengaraju B (2015) Screening, Purification and Characterization of β-Glucan from a Novel Strain Bacillus cereus LVK13 (KC 898956). Screening 8: 1156-62.
  • Naso D, Cangeri F, de Mello RN, Bona S, Dias AS, Porawski M, et al. (2010) Effect of Agaricus blazei Murill on the pulmonary tissue of animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Exp Diabetes Res 201: 26.
  • Niwa A, Tajiri T, Higashino H (2011) Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 48: 194-202.
  • Omueti KO, Beyer JM, Johnson CM, Lyle EA, Tapping RI (2005) Domain exchange between human toll-like receptors 1 and 6 reveals a region required for lipopeptide discrimination. J Biol Chem 280: 36616-36625.
  • Rao MU, Sreenivasulu M, Chengaiah B, Reddy KJ, Chetty CM (2015) Herbal Medicine for Diabetes Melitus. Int J PharmTech Res 2: 1883-1892.
  • Reid DM, Montoya M, Taylor PR, Borrow P, Gordon S, Brown GD, et al. (2004) Expression of the β-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, on murine leukocytes in situ correlates with its function in pathogen recognition and reveals potential roles in leukocyte interactions. J Leukoc Biol 76:86-94.
  • Sakaguchi S, Yamaguchi T, Nomura T, Ono M (2008) Regulatory T cells and immune tolerance. Cell 133: 775-787.
  • Slack EC, Robinson MJ, Hernanz‐Falcón P, Brown GD, Williams DL, Schweighoffer E, et al. (2007) Syk‐dependent ERK activation regulates IL‐2 and IL‐10 production by DC stimulated with zymosan. Eur J Immunol 37: 1600-1612.
  • Swain RP, Subudhi BB, Mahapatra AK, Bolapareddi V (2015) Bridging Between Disease, Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review. Int J PharmTech Res 7: 212-228.
  • Takaku T, Kimura Y, Okuda H (2001) Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action. J Nutr 131:1409-13.
  • Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY (2002) The β-glucan receptor, dectin-1, is predominantly expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil lineages. J Immunol 169:3876-3882.
  • Underhill DM (2007) Collaboration between the innate immune receptors dectin‐1, TLRs, and Nods. Immunol Rev 219: 75-87.
  • Wasser SP (2010) Medicinal mushroom science: history, current status, future trends, and unsolved problems. Int J Med Mushrooms 12:1-16.
  • Willment JA, Lin HH, Reid DM, Taylor PR, Williams DL, Wong SY, et al. (2003) Dectin-1 expression and function are enhanced on alternatively activated and GM-CSF-treated macrophages and are negatively regulated by IL-10, dexamethasone, and lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 171: 4569-73.
  • Xu X, Yan H, Chen J, Zhang X (2011) Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnol Adv 29: 667-74.
  • Zanin-Zhorov A, Cahalon L, Tal G, Margalit R, Lider O, Cohen IR (2006) Heat shock protein 60 enhances CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell function via innate TLR2 signaling. J Clin Inves 116: 2022.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.