The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Hana Istifo NN, Abass KS. The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 1155-1162.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Hana Istifo & Abass, 2019)
Reference: Hana Istifo, N. N., & Abass, K. S. (2019). The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 1155-1162.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Hana Istifo and Abass, 2019)
Reference: Hana Istifo, Neven Nihal, and Kasim Sakran Abass. "The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 1155-1162.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Hana Istifo and Abass, 2019)
Reference: Hana Istifo, N. N., and Abass, K. S. (2019). The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 1155-1162.

MLA
In-text citation: (Hana Istifo and Abass, 2019)
Reference: Hana Istifo, Neven Nihal et al. "The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1155-1162.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Hana Istifo NN, Abass KS. The influence of different variables on adverse effect of dental local anesthesia in Kirkuk City. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1155-62.

Abstract

Background: Local anesthetic injections are the most common drugs used during dental treatment to inhibit pain sensation. Although these drugs are generally safe; though side effects occurs. Many side effects of anesthesia and anxiety associated dental treatment have been reported, yet their incidence and factors that modulate them were not studies extensively.
Objectives: The objectives of the study was to: 1- Determine the incidence rate of dental local anesthetic complications. 2- Analyze the effect of different risk factors on the incidence of local anesthetic adverse effects, anxiety and nicotine withdrawal syndrome in smoker and non-smokers.
Methodology: Three hundred fifty five dental patients enrolled in this Cross-Sectional study, those patients attended a private clinic for different dental complaints. The patients were given -lidocaine –hamein 2% with 1:80,000 epinephrine- by either infiltration or inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection techniques to induce anesthesia, then underwent different dental procedures. Questionnaire was constructed to obtain patients information after formal consent. We focused on the sixteen well known signs and symptoms of local anesthesia side effect. The anxiety evaluated by using10-cm anxiety visual analog scale (VAS-A). Additionally, we searched for other dental complications and for nicotine withdrawal symptoms.
Statistical Analysis: Data analyzed by using SigmaPlot (11.0) program. One sample t-test, ANOVA Test and a linear regression analysis were used. The p value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: The commonest side effect was Post-operative sensory paralysis (235/355, ~66%) followed by palpitation (215/355, ~60%). Most patients had more than one side effect concomitantly.
Gender, injection technique, dental procedure, age, BMI and smoking were significantly associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions. The incidence rate of Post-operative sensory paralysis (66.2%) followed by palpitation (60.5%) and pallor (15.5%). Each of Tremor, confusion and hyperventilation were identified in less than 5% of the study population. The incidence rate of anxiety was high (340/355, ~95%). The level of anxiety was significantly affected by different dental procedure, smoking, age and BMI. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly increased after local anesthetic injections with p<0.001.
Conclusions: The present study reports high incidence rate of local anesthetic adverse effects and anxiety which is associated with the some risk factors controlling these factors might minimize the side effects of the anesthesia.

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