Abstract

The aim of the research was to study the nature of the soil microbiota influence on the crop yield of cereals and legumes, as the most promising with joint sowing and to optimize the method of legume-cereal co-cultivation to increase their productivity, considering the influence of soil microflora. The experiment was carried out on chernozem soil with an optimal particle size of 2-3 cm and a soil moisture content of 20.8% in greenhouses, during September 2019 to January 2020. The studied samples were divided into three experimental groups: No. 1 - monoculture of spring wheat, No. 2 - monoculture of peas, and No. 3 – spring wheat-peas joint sawing in the ratio - 3:1. The commercial crops of Pisum sativum L. (peas of «Usatyy kormovoy» variety) and Triticum aestivum L. (a soft type of spring wheat of «Priokskaya» variety) were used. According to the study results, spring wheat crops are characterized by increase in production when co-cultivated with peas by almost 2 times than when growing separately (16 g. units/pot and 8,7 and 9, 1 unit/pot for wheat and peas, respectively). Among the variety of microorganisms of the studied soil, bacteria belonging to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Rhodococcus predominated. Meanwhile, there was observed an increase in the number of ammonifying microflora by 2.7 times with spring wheat-peas co-cultivated compering to monoculture sowing. The results obtained will not only theoretically predict a certain yield of cereals and legumes crops, but also practically help to get the necessary crop using calculated data, thereby contributing to a reduction in the cost of raw materials in the products production.

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