The effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of zingiber officinale (ginger) on PPARγ gene expression, the blood lipid profiles and the liver enzymes (AST, ALT) in the high-fat diet-fed adult male rats

Abstract

Zingiber officinale has been used as herbal medicine to treat various disorders. This study investigates the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract Zingiber officinale on the expression of hepatic Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), the blood lipid profiles and the liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase in the high-fat diet-fed adult male rats.Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 in each group). Two groups of rats were fed a standard diet whereas the other two groups were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks; Control group, high-fat diet group, hydro-alcoholic extract of Z. officinale (ZO) group and hydro-alcoholic extract of Z. officinale (ZO) + high-fat diet group were treated 400 mg/ kg.bw of the extract by oral gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Gene expression, the lipid profile of serum and also AST, ALT were determined. The expressions of hepatic PPARγ was down-regulated (P < 0.0001) by ZO extract. The extract of ginger showed a significant decrease in triglycerides (P < 0.05), the levels of liver AST , ALT (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in serum High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P < 0.05) . However, no significant decrease in serum Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol was observed either with both extract ginger groups compared to the control group. The results show that ginger extract may be responsible for the regulatory effects on PPARγ pathway. Moreover, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale is capable of improving lipid disorders caused by the high-fat diet.

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