The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Morsy GM, Hussein RH, El-Fadl HMIA. The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1), 1221-1231.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Morsy et al., 2020)
Reference: Morsy, G. M., Hussein, R. H., & El-Fadl, H. M. I. A. (2020). The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), 1221-1231.

In-text citation: (Morsy et al., 2020)
Reference: Morsy, Gehan M., Rasha H. Hussein, and Huda M. Isamail Abo El-Fadl. "The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2020 14 no. 1 (2020): 1221-1231.

In-text citation: (Morsy et al., 2020)
Reference: Morsy, G. M., Hussein, R. H., and El-Fadl, H. M. I. A. (2020). The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), pp. 1221-1231.

In-text citation: (Morsy et al., 2020)
Reference: Morsy, Gehan M. et al. "The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 14, no. 1, 2020, pp. 1221-1231.

In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Morsy GM, Hussein RH, El-Fadl HMIA. The chondroprotective role of pecans (carya illinoinensis) and pistachio (pistacia vera) against experimentally induced animal model of knee osteoarthritis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):1221-31.


Osteoarthritis (OA), an adult disorder joint worldwide, is a multifactorial disease. This research was planned to evaluate the anti-arthritis effect on adjuvant arthritis in male Albino rats of Pistachio and Pecan. Forty male albino rats were separated into five equal groups. G1: set a standard control. G2: OA-induced group receiving a commercially prepared, full adjuvant Freund’s (CFA) injection of 0.50 ml (1 mg/ml) intra-articularly, G3:(OA + Pecan treated group): osteoarthritic rats fed basal diets supplemented with 18% Pecans.G4: (OA + Pistachio treated group): osteoarthritic rats fed basal diets supplemented with 10% pistachio. G5: OA + Reference drug diclofenac sodium. The obtained results showed that CFA incused OA manifested by a significant elevation in MDA and MPO levels in paw tissues, NO, IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 in synovial fluid, CRP and ALP in serum. On the other hand, a significant reduction in serum GSH and GAG level in synovial fluid were observed in OA induced rats. Current evidence has revealed that treatment with either Pecan or Pistachio displayed anti-inflammatory effects by lowering pro-inflammatory factors levels. Also, it reduced OA-mediated oxidative damages, and improved GAGs levels in synovial fluid, thus slow degradation of cartilage, and enhanced joint function. Histopathological findings are similar to biochemical ones. In conclusion, comparing plant treatments showed that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were more evident in Pistachio treated group rather than Pecan treated group.


  • Abbaspour N, Roberts T, Hooshmand S, Kern M, Hong MY (2019) Mixed Nut Consumption May Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults. Nutrients 11(7): 1488.
  • Aborehab NM, El Bishbishy MH, Refaiy A, Waly NE (2017) A putative Chondroprotective role for IL-1β and MPO in herbal treatment of experimental osteoarthritis. BMC complementary and alternative medicine 17(1): 495.
  • Adeyemi WJ, Olayaki LA (2018) Diabetes escalates knee osteoarthritis in rats: evidence of adaptive mechanism. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 61: 1-7.
  • Aiyalu R, Subramaniam I, Govindarajan A, Ramasamy A (2017) Formulation and Evaluation of Novel Herbal Aerosol for Arthritis.
  • Al-Afify AS, El-Akabawy G, El-Sherif NM, El-Safty FE-NA, El-Habiby MM (2018) Avocado soybean unsaponifiables ameliorates cartilage and subchondral bone degeneration in mono-iodoacetate-induced knee osteoarthritis in rats. Tissue and Cell 52: 108-115.
  • Aravinthan A, Hossain MA, Kim B, Kang C-W, Kim NS, Hwang K-C, Kim J-H (2020) Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in postmenopausal rats through prevention of cartilage degradation. Journal of Ginseng Research.
  • Askari A, Ravansalar SA, Naghizadeh MM, Mosavat SH, Khodadoost M, Jazani AM, Hashempur MH (2019) The efficacy of topical sesame oil in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized double-blinded active-controlled non-inferiority clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine 47: 102183.
  • Atanasov AG, Sabharanjak SM, Zengin G, Mollica A, Szostak A, Simirgiotis M, . . . Mocan A (2018) Pecan nuts: A review of reported bioactivities and health effects. Trends in food science & technology 71: 246-257.
  • Bahtiar A, Nurazizah M, Roselina T, Tambunan AP, Arsianti A (2017) Ethanolic extracts of babandotan leaves (Ageratum conyzoides L.) prevents inflammation and proteoglycan degradation by inhibiting TNF-α and MMP-9 on osteoarthritis rats induced by monosodium iodoacetate. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine 10(3): 270-277.
  • Bansode RR, Randolph P, Ahmedna M, Hurley S, Hanner T, Baxter SAS, . . . Yu J (2014) Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function. Food chemistry 148: 24-29.
  • Bar‐Yehuda S, Rath‐Wolfson L, Del Valle L, Ochaion A, Cohen S, Patoka R, . . . Piña‐Oviedo S (2009) Induction of an antiinflammatory effect and prevention of cartilage damage in rat knee osteoarthritis by CF101 treatment. Arthritis & Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology 60(10): 3061-3071.
  • Bei M-J, Tian F-M, Xiao Y-P, Cao X-H, Liu N, Zheng Z-Y, . . . Zhang L (2019) Raloxifene retards cartilage degradation and improves subchondral bone micro-architecture in ovariectomized rats with patella baja-induced-patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and cartilage.
  • Belury MA, Cole RM, Bailey BE, Ke JY, Andridge RR, Kiecolt‐Glaser JK (2016) Erythrocyte linoleic acid, but not oleic acid, is associated with improvements in body composition in men and women. Molecular nutrition & food research 60(5): 1206-1212.
  • Boateng J, Miller-Cebert R, Shackelford L, Verghese M (2016) Modifying Effects of Pistachio Nuts on Antioxidant Enzymes in Azoxymethane (AOM)-induced Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci. Cancer Research 12(3-4): 140-151.
  • Chien T-Y, Huang SK-H, Lee C-J, Tsai P-W, Wang C-C (2016) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of zerumbone against mono-iodoacetate-induced arthritis. International journal of molecular sciences 17(2): 249.
  • Corcoran MP, McKay DL, Blumberg JB (2012) Flavonoid basics: chemistry, sources, mechanisms of action, and safety. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics 31(3): 176-189.
  • Cunha JE, Barbosa GM, de Souza Castro PAT, Luiz BLF, Silva ACA, Russo TL, . . . Salvini TF (2019) Knee osteoarthritis induces atrophy and neuromuscular junction remodeling in the quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles of rats. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-11.
  • Di Daniele, N., Noce, A., Vidiri, M. F., Moriconi, E., Marrone, G., Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M., . . . De Lorenzo, A. (2017). Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity. Oncotarget 8(5): 8947.
  • Di Paola R, Fusco R, Gugliandolo E, D’Amico R, Campolo M, Latteri S, . . . Cuzzocrea S (2018) The antioxidant activity of pistachios reduces cardiac tissue injury of acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in diabetic streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycaemic rats. Frontiers in pharmacology 9: 51.
  • Di Paola R, Fusco R, Impellizzeri D, Cordaro M, Britti D, Morittu VM, . . . Cuzzocrea S (2016) Adelmidrol, in combination with hyaluronic acid, displays increased anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects against monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Arthritis research & therapy 18(1): 291.
  • do Prado ACP, da Silva HS, da Silveira SM, Barreto PLM, Vieira CRW, Maraschin M, . . . Block JM (2014) Effect of the extraction process on the phenolic compounds profile and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts of pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] shell. Industrial Crops and Products 52: 552-561.
  • Domínguez-Avila JA, Alvarez-Parrilla E, López-Díaz JA, Maldonado-Mendoza IE, del Consuelo Gómez-García M, Laura A (2015) The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets. Food chemistry 168: 529-537.
  • Dreher ML (2012) Pistachio nuts: composition and potential health benefits. Nutrition reviews 70(4): 234-240.
  • Duarte FC, Hurtig M, Clark A, Simpson J, Srbely JZ (2019) Association between naturally occurring spine osteoarthritis in geriatric rats and neurogenic inflammation within neurosegmentally linked skeletal muscle. Experimental gerontology 118: 31-38.
  • Gong Y, Pegg RB (2017) Separation of ellagitannin-rich phenolics from US pecans and Chinese hickory nuts using fused-core HPLC columns and their characterization. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 65(28): 5810-5820.
  • Grace MH, Esposito D, Timmers MA, Xiong J, Yousef G, Komarnytsky S, Lila MA (2016) Chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pistachio hull extracts. Food chemistry 210: 85-95.
  • Haddad EH (2011) Health effects of a pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Nut-rich Diet. In Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (pp. 891-898): Elsevier.
  • Hanafy AS, El-Ganainy SO (2020) Thermoresponsive Hyalomer intra-articular hydrogels improve monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 573: 118859.
  • Horn SR, Long MM, Nelson BW, Allen NB, Fisher PA, Byrne ML (2018) Replication and reproducibility issues in the relationship between C-reactive protein and depression: A systematic review and focused meta-analysis. Brain, behavior, and immunity 73: 85-114.
  • Juaira T, Begum N, Ali T (2015) Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Combined Administration of a-tocopherol and Diclofenac. Journal of Bangladesh Society of Physiologist 10(1): 30-35.
  • Karsdal M, Leeming D, Dam E, Henriksen K, Alexandersen P, Pastoureau P, . . . Christiansen C (2008) Should subchondral bone turnover be targeted when treating osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis and cartilage 16(6): 638-646.
  • Kerkhof HJ, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Castano-Betancourt MC, de Maat MP, Hofman A, Pols HA, . . . Van Meurs JB (2010) Serum C reactive protein levels and genetic variation in the CRP gene are not associated with the prevalence, incidence or progression of osteoarthritis independent of body mass index. Annals of the rheumatic diseases 69(11): 1976-1982.
  • Kim J-K, Park S-W, Kang J-W, Kim Y-J, Lee SY, Shin J, . . . Lee S-M (2012) Effect of GCSB-5, a herbal formulation, on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012.
  • Kulkarni P, Deshpande S, Koppikar S, Patil S, Ingale D, Harsulkar A (2016) Glycosaminoglycan measured from synovial fluid serves as a useful indicator for progression of Osteoarthritis and complements Kellgren–Lawrence Score. BBA clinical 6: 1-4.
  • Kwasny C, Manuwald U, Kugler J, Rothe U (2018) Systematic review of the epidemiology and natural history of the metabolic vascular syndrome and its coincidence with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in different European countries. Hormone and Metabolic Research 50(03): 201-208.
  • Lee YM, Son E, Kim S-H, Kim OS, Kim D-S (2019) Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritis effect of Mollugo pentaphylla extract. Pharmaceutical biology 57(1): 73-80.
  • Leonavičienė L, Bradūnaitė R, Vaitkienė D, Vasiliauskas A, Keturkienė A (2008) Collagen-induced arthritis and pro-/antioxidant status in Wistar and Lewis rats. biologija 4.
  • Levy AS, Simon O, Shelly J, Gardener M (2006) 6-Shogaol reduced chronic inflammatory response in the knees of rats treated with complete Freund’s adjuvant. BMC pharmacology 6(1): 12.
  • Lohmander LS, De Verdier MG, Rollof J, Nilsson PM, Engström G (2009) Incidence of severe knee and hip osteoarthritis in relation to different measures of body mass: a population-based prospective cohort study. Annals of the rheumatic diseases 68(4): 490-496.
  • Martorana M, Arcoraci T, Rizza L, Cristani M, Bonina FP, Saija A, . . . Tomaino A (2013) In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effect of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seed and skin extracts. Fitoterapia 85: 41-48.
  • Mekonen S (2017) Evaluation of Fungicides and Fungicidal Spray Schedule for the Management of Angular Leaf Spot of Common Bean. Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 2(2): 74-83.
  • Nielen MM, van Schaardenburg D, Reesink HW, Twisk JW, van de Stadt RJ, van der Horst-Bruinsma IE, . . . Dijkmans BA (2006) Simultaneous development of acute phase response and autoantibodies in preclinical rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases 65(4): 535-537.
  • Nigro E, Scudiero O, Monaco ML, Palmieri A, Mazzarella G, Costagliola C, . . . Daniele A (2014) New insight into adiponectin role in obesity and obesity-related diseases. BioMed research international 2014.
  • Nirmal PS, Jagtap SD, Narkhede AN, Nagarkar BE, Harsulkar AM (2017) New herbal composition (OA-F2) protects cartilage degeneration in a rat model of collagenase induced osteoarthritis. BMC complementary and alternative medicine 17(1): 1-11.
  • O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, & Victor III LF (2015) Tree nut consumption is associated with better nutrient adequacy and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010. Nutrients 7(1): 595-607.
  • Orhan I, Küpeli E, Aslan M, Kartal M, Yesilada E (2006) Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105(1-2): 235-240.
  • Ou Z, Zhao J, Zhu L, Huang L, Ma Y, Ma C, . . . Wu J (2019) Anti-inflammatory effect and potential mechanism of betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 118: 109347.
  • Paterniti I, Impellizzeri D, Cordaro M, Siracusa R, Bisignano C, Gugliandolo E, . . . Cuzzocrea S (2017) The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) in vitro and in vivo. Nutrients 9(8): 915.
  • Patil KS, Suryavanshi J (2007) Effect of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. seed on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Pharmacognosy Magazine 3(11): 177.
  • Roth SH (2013) Diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis. International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 8(2): 185.
  • Rusu ME, Simedrea R, Gheldiu A-M, Mocan A, Vlase L, Popa D-S, Ferreira IC (2019) Benefits of tree nuts consumption on aging and age-related diseases: mechanisms of actions. Trends in food science & technology.
  • Sarkar A, Datta P, Gomes A, Gupta SCD, Gomes A (2013) Anti-osteoporosis and anti-osteoarthritis activity of fresh water snail (Viviparous bengalensis) flesh extract in experimental animal model.
  • Schmitz N, Laverty S, Kraus V, Aigner T (2010) Basic methods in histopathology of joint tissues. Osteoarthritis and cartilage 18: S113-S116.
  • Shen C-L, Smith BJ, Lo D-F, Chyu M-C, Dunn DM, Chen C-H, Kwun I-S (2012) Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 23(11): 1367-1377.
  • Sheridan MJ, Cooper JN, Erario M, Cheifetz CE (2007) Pistachio nut consumption and serum lipid levels. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26(2): 141-148.
  • Singh B, Bani S, Gupta D, Chandan B, Kaul A (2003) Anti-inflammatory activity of ‘TAF’an active fraction from the plant Barleria prionitis Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85(2-3): 187-193.
  • Smeriglio A, Denaro M, Barreca D, Calderaro A, Bisignano C, Ginestra G, . . . Trombetta D (2018) In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Cytoprotective. Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products 18: 298.
  • Spyridopoulou K, Tiptiri-Kourpeti A, Lampri E, Fitsiou E, Vasileiadis S, Vamvakias M, . . . Panayiotidis MI (2017) Dietary mastic oil extracted from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia suppresses tumor growth in experimental colon cancer models. Scientific reports 7(1): 1-14.
  • Suresh P, Kavitha CN, Babu SM, Reddy VP, Latha AK (2012) Effect of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. Inflammation 35(4): 1314-1321.
  • Tomaino A, Martorana M, Arcoraci T, Monteleone D, Giovinazzo C, Saija A (2010) Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins. Biochimie 92(9): 1115-1122.
  • Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL (2004) Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52(12): 4026-4037.
  • Xiao H, Xie X, Wen Y, Tan Y, Shangguan Y, Li B, . . . Chen L (2020) Subchondral bone dysplasia partly participates in prenatal dexamethasone induced-osteoarthritis susceptibility in female offspring rats. Bone 133: 115245.
  • Yao H, Xu J, Zheng N, Wang J, Mok S, Lee Y, . . . Yung S (2019) Intra-articular injection of magnesium chloride attenuates osteoarthritis progression in rats. Osteoarthritis and cartilage 27(12): 1811-1821.
  • Zhang B, Zhai M, Li B, Liu Z, Li K, Jiang L, . . . Yi D (2018) Honokiol ameliorates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in type 1 diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis through activating the SIRT1-Nrf2 signaling pathway. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity.
  • Zhang J (2018) Meta-analysis of serum C-reactive protein and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels as biomarkers for clinical knee osteoarthritis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders 19(1): 22.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.