AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Khattak U, Ullah R, Khan SA, Jan SA, Rauf A, Ramadan MF. Synthesis, characteristics and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia dracunculoides. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 2249-2260.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Khattak et al., 2019)
Reference: Khattak, U., Ullah, R., Khan, S. A., Jan, S. A., Rauf, A., & Ramadan, M. F. (2019). Synthesis, characteristics and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia dracunculoides. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 2249-2260.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Khattak et al., 2019)
Reference: Khattak, Umbreen, Rehman Ullah, Shafqat Ali Khan, Saiqa Afriq Jan, Abdur Rauf, and Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan. "Synthesis, characteristics and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia dracunculoides". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 2249-2260.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Khattak et al., 2019)
Reference: Khattak, U., Ullah, R., Khan, S. A., Jan, S. A., Rauf, A., and Ramadan, M. F. (2019). Synthesis, characteristics and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia dracunculoides. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 2249-2260.

MLA
In-text citation: (Khattak et al., 2019)
Reference: Khattak, Umbreen et al. "Synthesis, characteristics and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia dracunculoides". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 2249-2260.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Khattak U, Ullah R, Khan SA, Jan SA, Rauf A, Ramadan MF. Synthesis, characteristics and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia dracunculoides. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):2249-60.

Abstract

The present study was conducted to synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the ethanol extract of Euphorbia dracunculoides (EEE). AgNPs were synthesized by mixing the EEE solution with silver nitrate solution at different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, v/v). The structure and characteristics of synthesized AgNPs were studied by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy), Energy dispersive X- rays (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The EEE and synthesized AgNPs were subjected to investigate antioxidant, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and analgesic activities. Change in color of the solution to dark brown was the indicator of AgNPs synthesis in the EEE solution. UV-Vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbency at 1:1 in the range of 400-500. EDX profile showed strong signal silver atom. XRD analysis indicated the crystalline shape of face-centered cubic AgNPs. FTIR analysis identified molecules responsible for the reduction of silver ion and capping. The peak (1396 cm-1) present in EEE disappears in the AgNPs indicated that -C-H bending (alkane) bound to synthesized AgNPs. SEM showed that the shape of AgNPs was spherical and its size ranged from 14.0-45.6 nm. The antiradical activity of EEE and AgNPs showed minimum absorbency 34.2% and 71.4% at 1000 µg/mL, respectively. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay of EEE and AgNPs showed 100% lethality at 1000 µg/mL. Phytotoxicity of EEE showed 40.2% inhibition of fronds while AgNPs showed 69.0% inhibition of fronds at 1000 µg/mL. The analgesic effect was dose-dependent. EEE and AgNPs showed maximum MLT 19.4 (129.4%) and 19.22 (135.7%) at 300 µg/mL, respectively. It could be concluded that EEE and synthesized AgNPs had potent pharmacological traits.

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