Synthesis and characterization of na-saturated kaolinite membrane for pb(ii) filtration


This research aims to synthesize membrane using kaolinite and Na-saturated kaolinite. Three main steps of preparation of the membrane were conducted; preparation of kaolinite, synthesis of the membrane and trial of membrane implementation for filtration of Pb2+ cation using cross-flow reactor. Membrane characterization was performed using SEM EDX. This research showed that kaolinite membrane (Kao) has significant larger pores compared to those of Na-kaolinite membrane (Kao-Na). Both membranes have uneven distribution of pores, with main compositions of carbon (C) and oxygen (O). The mass of each element is 43.69% and 46.88% of total mass on Kao, and 45.35% and 44.84% on Kao-Na, respectively. The highest flux on Kao is 58.441 L/(m2.h) and 30.080 L/(m2.h) on Kao-Na. The highest rejection of Pb2+ is 24.48% on Kao and 28.27% in Kao-Na. The saturation of Na+ decreases the flux and increases the rejection.


  • Afifah AS, Damayanti A (2016) filtrasi limbah laundry dengan membran zeolit-silika untuk menurunkan cod. Jurnal Purifikasi 16(2): 67-77.
  • Al-Harahsheh M, Shawabkeh R, Al-Harahsheh A, Tarawneh K, Batiha MM (2009) Surface modification and characterization of Jordanian kaolinite: application for lead removal from aqueous solutions. Applied Surface Science 255(18): 8098-8103.
  • Baker RW (2004) Membrane technology and applications. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bayat M, Teymoorian A (2015) A Study on Gravimeteric Situation in East of Uromieh Lake Region with Determination of Suitable Bouguer Density. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 4(9): 146-154.
  • Bhattacharyya KG, Gupta SS (2008) Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review. Advances in colloid and interface science 140(2): 114-131.
  • Bouzerara F, Harabi A, Achour S, Larbot A (2006) Porous ceramic supports for membranes prepared from kaolin and doloma mixtures. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 26(9): 1663-1671.
  • Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. Journal of environmental management 92(3): 407-418.
  • Gholamrezaei, A., Rezapour-Nasrabad, R., Ghalenoei, M., & Nasiri, M. (2019). Correlation between suicide literacy and stigmatizing attitude of nurses toward patients with suicide attempts. Revista Latinoamericana de Hipertension, 14(3), 351-355.
  • Harabi A, Zenikheri F, Boudaira B, Bouzerara F, Guechi A, Foughali L (2014) A new and economic approach to fabricate resistant porous membrane supports using kaolin and CaCO3. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 34(5): 1329-1340.
  • Ismail AF, Matsuura T (ed.) (2016) Membrane technology for water and wastewater treatment, energy and environment. CRC Press.
  • Kumar BS (2014) Fabrication and characterization of kaolin based membrane for catalyst recovery (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Miller DJ, Kasemset S, Paul DR, Freeman BD (2014) Comparison of membrane fouling at constant flux and constant transmembrane pressure conditions. Journal of Membrane Science 454: 505-515.
  • Mohammadi T, Pak A (2003) Effect of calcination temperature of kaolin as a support for zeolite membranes. Separation and Purification Technology 30(3): 241-249.
  • Mohammadi T, Pak A, Karbassian M, Golshan M (2004) Effect of operating conditions on microfiltration of an oil-water emulsion by a kaolin membrane. Desalination 168: 201-205.
  • Sarbatly R. (2011) Porosity of the Kaolin Membrane Support. Journal of Applied Sciences 11(13): 2306-2312.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.