Spatial monitoring for degradation Al-Razzaza Lake by analysis temporal of remote sensing data using geographic information system techniques

Abstract

Al-Razzaza lake is the second largest lakes in Iraq, part of a vast valley that includes the lakes of Tharthar, Habbaniyah and the Sea of Najaf. Its total area is 1810 km2, with a storage capacity of 26 billion cubic meters, with a maximum storage level of 40 meters above sea level. Like other water bodies in Iraq, there has between a significant deterioration in its area, especially after 2003 Due to climatic changes, high temperature of the atmosphere and the evaporation process in addition to insufficient water to the lake to compensate for the shortfall as a result of the construction of dams in Turkey and Syria as well as the low level of the Euphrates River, which is the most important source of lake water. The aim of this research is to identify and monitor changes that have occurred in the area of the lake as well as the land cover around it by analyzing satellite images to produce maps of land cover varieties prevailing in the region for different time periods using Geographic Information System techniques. Six seasons within the study area were identified, representing three types of land covers (vegetation, soil, water) for years (1985-2003-2018) by applying Supervised Classification technique depending on the visual interpretation and geographical maps, the percentage of variance in Normalized Differences Water Index was also measured between different years to determine the variance between each year The results showed a clear discrepancy between the three years, in terms of spatial distribution and quantitative estimation of each class. Between 2003 and 2018, the area of the lake decreased by 792 km2 and significantly increased in the area saline land and desert land in 2018. This study shows that there is a significant shortage of water cover in terms of depth and area of the lake because of the significant decrease in the value of NDWI.

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