Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Abdul-Lateef Ali N, Mohammed AK, AL-Rekabi MM. Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1), 417-421.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Abdul-Lateef Ali et al., 2020)
Reference: Abdul-Lateef Ali, N., Mohammed, A. K., & AL-Rekabi, M. M. (2020). Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), 417-421.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Abdul-Lateef Ali et al., 2020)
Reference: Abdul-Lateef Ali, Nihad, Alaa Khudhair Mohammed, and Mohannad M. AL-Rekabi. "Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2020 14 no. 1 (2020): 417-421.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Abdul-Lateef Ali et al., 2020)
Reference: Abdul-Lateef Ali, N., Mohammed, A. K., and AL-Rekabi, M. M. (2020). Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), pp. 417-421.

MLA
In-text citation: (Abdul-Lateef Ali et al., 2020)
Reference: Abdul-Lateef Ali, Nihad et al. "Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 14, no. 1, 2020, pp. 417-421.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Abdul-Lateef Ali N, Mohammed AK, AL-Rekabi MM. Response of immune system and microbial content of gut to feeding with different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) in broiler chickens. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):417-21.

Abstract

This experiment aimed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of different levels of crushed laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis) on the immune responses and microbial content of gut in broiler chickens. A total of 180 unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into four treatments (45 birds per treatment) and each treatment consisted of three replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatment groups were: control; without adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet, second treatment; Adding 1 g/kg feed crushed laurel leaves to diet, third treatment: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (2 g / kg feed) and treatment Fourth: Adding crushed laurel leaves with amount of (3 g / kg feed). The experiment included the following traits: antibody titer against Newcastle disease, investigating sensitivity against Newcastle disease, the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, bursa of Fabricius index, estimating the total number of bacterial, estimating the total number of coliform bacteria and estimating the total number of Lactobacillus bacteria. The results indicated that adding the crushed laurel leaves significantly improved cellular immunity and antibody titer against Newcastle disease as well as relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and bursa of Fabricius index. A significant decrease in the logarithmic numbers for the total aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria with a significant increase in the logarithmic numbers for Lactobacillus bacteria in the duodenum contents for the small intestine as well as in the ceca compared to the control treatment. It is concluded that the addition of crushed laurel leaves to the diet can improve the immune response and microbial content of digestive tract in broiler chickens.

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