Relationship of fluoride and calcium levels in drinking water on periodontal diseases in children aged 6-8 years (Research observations in Bangkalan district)

Abstract

Background: Plaques undergoing remineralization and becoming rigid can cause periodontal disease. The hardened plaque is called calculus. The occurrence of calculus formation can increase along with the amount of calcium and other minerals in saliva. Minerals in saliva contain calcium, phosphor, and fluoride. Fluoride is a mineral coming from natural sources, which is mostly obtained from drinking water. Indonesia, as a maritime country with a large coastal community, has a population that majority uses well water as drinking water. Well water can contain fluoride and calcium.
Purpose: To analyze the relationship between fluoride and calcium levels in drinking water on periodontal responses in children.
Methods: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach. Total sampling was carried out in Bangkalan District with a total of 140 parents and children as respondents. Informed consent and questionnaires were given to parents for data collection. Furthermore, the clinical examination on students was done by using a disclosing agent, then measured by OHI-S assessment. The results were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Spearman test.
Results: The results showed there was a relationship between regions with OHI-S scores, OHI-S scores with fluoride levels, and OHI-S scores with calcium levels.
Conclusion: The calcium levels in drinking water can affect salivary levels and increase plaques and calculus formation. Plaque accumulation is a major factor in the occurrence of periodontal disease.

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