Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2019 - Volume 13 Issue 2, pp. 811-815
  • Published Online: 07 Jul 2019
  • Article Views: 163 | Article Download: 71
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Anandita NW, Aulia N, Sulistiyowati A, Wulandari LR. Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 811-815.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Anandita et al., 2019)
Reference: Anandita, N. W., Aulia, N., Sulistiyowati, A., & Wulandari, L. R. (2019). Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 811-815.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Anandita et al., 2019)
Reference: Anandita, Nanda Wahyu, Nafitri Aulia, Anny Sulistiyowati, and Lely Retno Wulandari. "Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 811-815.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Anandita et al., 2019)
Reference: Anandita, N. W., Aulia, N., Sulistiyowati, A., and Wulandari, L. R. (2019). Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 811-815.

MLA
In-text citation: (Anandita et al., 2019)
Reference: Anandita, Nanda Wahyu et al. "Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 811-815.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Anandita NW, Aulia N, Sulistiyowati A, Wulandari LR. Refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation as examined with the Hirschberg test in elementary and junior school students in Lesanpuro, Malang. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):811-5.

Abstract

Refractive error and eye deviation are two common pediatric eye conditions. Ophthalmic screening in children is essential for protecting against vision loss. In 2010, the WHO estimated that refractive error causes 42% of vision disturbances globally. Uncorrected refractive error can cause eye deviation. In this study, we report the characteristics of refractive error and its correlation with eye deviation, as examined with the Hirschberg test, in children from elementary and junior schools in Lesanpuro, Malang. This study involved 606 children aged 6-17 years, from elementary and junior schools. This was a cross-sectional observational descriptive study. Data was obtained from refraction examinations and the Hirschberg test. Each subject underwent one refraction test and one test of eye position. The results showed emmetropia, myopia, astigmatism, and hyperopia in 450 (74.26%), 131 (21.62%), 56 (9.24%), and 5 (0.83%) children, respectively. Eye deviation was found in six children (1.65%), all of which showed extropia (100%). Eye deviation occurred together with myopia in one child (17%), and with astigmatism in three children (50%). Two further children (33%) had other conditions such as amblyopia and corneal scar. Eye deviation is most common in astigmatism. For refractive errors, myopia is the most common condition while hypermetropia is the least common.

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