Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking shisha and evaluate the socio-demographic associates of smoking among Salahaddin University (SU) students in Erbil city. Respondents were selected randomly and 378 students who met the inclusion criteria participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and individual characteristics. The prevalence of smoking shisha among SU students (21.2%, n=80) was higher than that of cigarette smoking (12.4%, n = 47) and the highest prevalence of shisha smokers were much higher in males than females 70 (60.5%). Chi square test shows that 4 factors were significantly associated with smoking shisha; gender (χ2 =7.723, df=1, p<0.005), age (χ2 =37.674, df=2, p<0.001), BMI (χ2 =18.901, df=3, p<0.001), cigarette smoking status (χ2 =159.097, df=2, p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression test has showed that the most significant risk factors for smoking shisha were age (OR=5.585, 95%CI: 2.016-15.461), and cigarette smoking status (OR=74.060, 95%CI: 23.623-232.179). Among SU students, the overall prevalence of smoking shisha was high and significantly associated with age, gender, body mass index and cigarette smoking status. Effective prevention strategies are required in order to reduce the risk of smoking shisha among SU students.

References

  • Aanyu C, Kadobera D, Apolot RR, Kisakye AN, Nsubuga P, Bazeyo W, Ddamulira JB (2019) Prevalence, knowledge and practices of shisha smoking among youth in Kampala City, Uganda. The Pan African Medical Journal, 32(2): 1-10.
  • Ahmed B, Jacob III P, Allen F, Benowitz N (2011) Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(2): 146-152.
  • Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV (2012) Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(11): 5627-5632.
  • Aslam HM, Saleem S, German S, Qureshi WA (2014) Harmful effects of shisha: literature review. International Archives of Medicine, 7(1): 1-9.
  • Aurangzeb MH, Aziz H, Sadaf Hina SS, Altaf F (2012) Perceptions and practices of shisha smoking among medical students. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci, 8(4): 216-219.
  • Awan KH, Siddiqi K, Patil S, Hussain QA (2017) Assessing the effect of waterpipe smoking on cancer outcome-a systematic review of current evidence. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP, 18(2): 495-502.
  • Bazzi K (2015) Expanded of Informal Jobs in Iranian Border Cities, Case: Zabol-Iran. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 4(3): 47-56.
  • Chaouachi K (2007). The medical consequences of narghile (hookah, shisha) use in the world. Revue D’epidemiologie et de Sante Publique, 55(3): 165-170.
  • Dream City Erbil: real stat to investment LTD. (2020, January 10). Retrieved from http://www.dreamcity-erbil.com/index.php
  • Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Smith-Simone S, Maziak W (2008) Water pipe tobacco smoking on a US College campus: prevalence and correlates. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(5): 526-529.
  • EKurd Daily. Kurdistan smoking ban takes effect next month. (2019 December 20). Retrieved from https://ekurd.net/mismas/articles/misc2008/5/kurdlocal510.htm
  • Gilreath TD, Leventhal A, Barrington-Trimis JL, Unger JB, et al. (2016) Patterns of alternative tobacco product use: emergence of hookah and e-cigarettes as preferred products amongst youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(2): 181-185.
  • Global Health Workforce alliance. Public Health Perspective (PHP). (2020 January 26). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/workforcealliance/members_partners/member_list/phpnepal/en/
  • Habib M, Mohamed MK, Abdel‐Aziz F, Magder LS, Abdel‐Hamid M, et al. (2001). Hepatitis C virus infection in a community in the Nile Delta: risk factors for seropositivity. Hepatology, 33(1): 248-253.
  • Hakim F, Hellou E, Goldbart A, Katz R, Bentur Y, Bentur L (2011) The acute effects of water-pipe smoking on the cardiorespiratory system. Chest, 139(4): 775-781.
  • Hamad Medical Corporation. Types of Smoking. (2020 January 25). Retrieved from https://www.hamad.qa/EN/your%20health/Stop%20Smoking/About-Smoking/Pages/Types-of-Smoking.aspx
  • Haroon M, Munir A, Mahmud W, Hyder O (2014) Knowledge, attitude, and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc, 64(2): 155-158.
  • Hendrick B (2020) Hookahs Safer Than Cigarettes? A Pipe Dream. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/
  • smoking-cessation/news/20100510/hookahs-safer-than-cigarettes-thats-a-pipe-dream#1
  • Islami F, Pourshams A, Vedanthan R, Poustchi H, Kamangar F, Golozar A (2013) Smoking water-pipe, chewing nass and prevalence of heart disease: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran. Heart. 99(4): 272-278
  • Jawad M, Lee JT, Millett C (2016) Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence and correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18(4): 395-402.
  • Jawad M, Nakkash RT, Mahfoud Z, Bteddini D, Haddad P, Afifi RA (2015) Parental smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with waterpipe smoking among youth: results from a national survey in Lebanon. Public Health, 129(4): 370-376.
  • Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N, Boonpraderm A, Haddock CK, Poston WS (2014) The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai food consumption survey. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 26(5): 481-493.
  • Joveini H, Dehdari T, Ardebili HE, Mahmoudi M, Firouzian AA, Rohban A (2016) Factors associated with hookah smoking among university students. Electronic Physician, 8(12): 3403-3408.
  • Kadhum M, Sweidan A, Jaffery AE, Al-Saadi A, Madden B (2015) A review of the health effects of smoking shisha. Clinical Medicine, 15(3): 263-266.
  • Knishkowy B, Amitai Y (2005) Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior. Pediatrics, 116(1): e113-e119.
  • Labib N, Radwan G, Mikhail N, Mohamed MK, El Setouhy M, Loffredo C, Israel E (2007) Comparison of cigarette and water pipe smoking among female university students in Egypt. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(5): 591-596.
  • Lewis T (2020) Smoking or Vaping May Increase the Risk of a Severe Coronavirus Infection. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/smoking-or-vaping-may-increase-the-risk-of-a-severe-coronavirus-infection1/
  • Mandil A, Hussein A, Omer H, Turki G, Gaber I (‎2007) Characteristics and risk factors of tobacco consumption among University of Sharjah students, 2005. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 13 (‎6)‎: 1449-1458.
  • Masood Z, Sohail K (2013) Perceptions of shisha smoking among university students in Pakistan. Journal of University Medical & Dental College, 4(2): 9-15.
  • Maziak W, Taleb ZB, Bahelah R, Islam F, Jaber R, Auf R, Salloum RG (2015) The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking. Tobacco Control, 24(Suppl 1): i3-i12.
  • Morton J, Song Y, Fouad H, El Awa F, El Naga RA, et al. (2014) Cross-country comparison of waterpipe use: nationally representative data from 13 low and middle-income countries from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Tobacco Control, 23(5): 419-427.
  • Muzammil DS, Al Rethaiaa AS, Al Mutairi AS, Al Rashidi TH, Al Rasheedi HA, Al Rasheedi SA (2019) Prevalence and perception of shisha smoking among university students: A cross-sectional study. Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry, 9(3): 275.
  • Omotehinwa OJ, Japheths O, Damascene IJ, Habtu M (2018) Shisha use among students in a private university in Kigali city, Rwanda: prevalence and associated factors. BMC public health, 18(1): 1-10.
  • Pednekar MS, Gupta PC, Shukla HC, Hebert JR (2006) Association between tobacco use and body mass index in urban Indian population: implications for public health in India. BMC Public Health, 6(1): 70.
  • Primack BA, Fertman CI, Rice KR, Adachi-Mejia AM, Fine MJ (2010) Waterpipe and cigarette smoking among college athletes in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1): 45-51.
  • Redhwan Ahmed AL, Saghir FS (2011) Water pipe (shisha) smoking and associated factors among Malaysian university students. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12: 3041-3047.
  • Roskin J, Aveyard P (2009) Canadian and English students’ beliefs about water pipe smoking: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 9(1): 1-7.
  • Salahaddin University. Salahaddin University –Erbil is one of the public and the oldest university. (2019 October 1). Retrieved from https://su.edu.krd/
  • Sardari F, Alibafghi L, Shakerian M, Bahramabadi R (2018) The Effect of Cigarette and Hookah Smoke on Oral Bacterial Growth, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis: An In vitro Study. International Journal of Infection, 5(3): 1-5.
  • Shafagoj YA, Mohammed FI (2002) Levels of maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide and certain cardiovascular parameters following hubble-bubble smoking. Saudi Medical Journal, 23(8): 953-958.
  • Shalaw FA, Rahmawati HT (2016) Proportion of work-related injuries and its characteristics among the staff of a public university in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences, 3(1): 69-82.
  • Sneve M, Jorde R (2008) Cross-sectional study on the relationship between body mass index and smoking, and longitudinal changes in body mass index in relation to change in smoking status: the Tromsø Study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36(4): 397-407.
  • Steentoft J, Wittendorf J, Andersen JR (2006) Tuberculosis and water pipes as source of infection. Ugeskrift for Laeger, 168(9): 904-907.
  • Sun Y, Yang L (2014) Generation and Genetic Analysis of Transgenic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Resistant to Herbicide Glyphosate. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 3(12): 151-159.
  • Sutfin EL, McCoy TP, Reboussin BA, Wagoner KG, Spangler J, Wolfson M (2011) Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(1-2): 131-136
  • Taha AZ, Sabra AA, Al-Mustafa ZZ, Al-Awami HR, Al-Khalaf MA, Al-Momen MM (2010) Water pipe (shisha) smoking among male students of medical colleges in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 30(3): 222-226.
  • Tamim H, Yunis KA, Chemaitelly H, Alameh M, Nassar AH (2008) National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network Beirut L. Effect of narghile and cigarette smoking on newborn birthweight. BJOG. 115(1): 91-97.
  • Universities in Kurdistan: Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research. (2020 January 9). Retrieved from https://mhe-krg.org/node/306
  • Warren CW, Lea V, Lee J, Jones NR, Asma S, McKenna M (2009) Change in tobacco use among 13-15 year olds between 1999 and 2008: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Global Health Promotion, 16(2_suppl): 38-90.
  • World Health Organization (2009) WHO Study Group on tobacco product regulation: report on the Scientific Basis of tobacco product regulation: third Report of a WHO Study Group. (2020 January 27). Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44213/9789241209557_eng.pdf?sequence=1
  • World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. (2020 January 26). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/gho/tobacco/use/en/
  • Young S (2020) What Is Shisha Smoking? Retrieved from https://young.scot/get-informed/national/what-is-shisha-smoking
  • Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT, Li Y (2020) Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(10): 1745-1752.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.