Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of “pseudomonas aeruginosa” isolated from clinical samples in Kirkuk City, Iraq

Abstract

Aims: Determine the prevalence of “P. aeruginosa” among clinical samples demonstrated from Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk, Iraq and to study the antibiogram profile of the isolates.
Duration of Study: from July-December 2016.
Methodology: The clinical isolates were characterized by standard methods of culturing, biochemical tests then they were tested for their sensitivity toward various antimicrobial.
Results: A total of 185 swab samples (50 urine samples, 50 vagina swabs, 50 wound swabs and 35 samples from burn patients) were demonstrated to detect on P. aeruginosa. After culturing 40 (21.6%) were positive for bacterial growth, out of 40 isolates of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa”; 5 (10%) were from urine, 10 (20%) from vagina swabs, 11 (22%) from wound samples and 14 (40%) from burn patient. The results showed the high prevalence among the female than male (52.5 and 47.5% respectively) and the high average of isolates were recorded among the old group 15 to 30 years (45%) and the low prevalence was <45 years (20%) among old group. Antibiotics susceptibility tests of “P. aeruginosa” towards 15 different types of antibiotics. The resistance against (Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefixime) were 38 isolates 95%, 37 isolates 92.5%, 38 isolates 95% and38 isolates 95% respectively, Except (Ticarcillin, Ceftazidime and Imipenem) the isolates showed low resistance against them 11 isolates 27.5%, 7 isolates 17.5% and 2 isolates 5% respectively. (Azithromycin, Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin, and Amikacin) were7 isolates 17.5%, 12 isolates 30%, 7 isolates 17.5%, and 10 isolates 25% respectively. Whereas, the results showed high resistance (39 isolates 97.5%, 35 isolates 87.5%, 39 isolates 97.5% and 40 isolates 100% against Trimethoprim-Sulfamethaxazole, Doxycycline, Chloramphenicol and Rifampicin respectively.
Conclusion: The dissemination of bacterial resistant strains towards the antibiotics causes losing of drug efficacy cause of the lack of awareness, patient’s noncompliance, indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents and unhygienic condition.

References

  • Al-Zaidi JR (2016) Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical and hospital environmental samples in Nasiriyah, Iraq. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 10(23): 844-849. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2016.8042
  • Anil C, Shahid RM (2013) Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” clinical isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 6(3): 235-238.
  • Arora D, Jindal N, Kumar R, Romit (2011) Emerging antibiotic resistance in “Pseudomonas aeruginosa”. Int. J. Pharm. Sci., 3(2): 82-4.
  • Carmeli Y, Troillet N, Eliopoulos GM, Samore MH (1999) Emergence of antibiotic-resistant “Pseudomonas aeruginosa”: Comparison of risks associated with different antipseudomonal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 43: 1379-82.
  • CDC-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Antibiotic resistance questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.cdcgov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/anitbiotic-resistancefaqs.html
  • Chander A, Mohammad Shahid R (2013). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” clinical isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 6(3): 235-238. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-6-487
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (2014). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty fourth Informational supplement. M100-S24.
  • Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, Simmons A (1996) Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. 14th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  • Dash M, Padhi S, Narasimham MV, Pattnaik S (2014) Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital, South Odisha, India.
  • Ekrem K, Rokan DK (2014). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” strains isolated from various clinical specimens. Sky J. Microbiol. Res. 2(2): 13-17.
  • Gad GF, Domany RA, Zaki S, Ashour HM (2007). Characterization of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Minia, Egypt: prevalence, antibiogram and resistance mechanisms. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60: 1010-1017.
  • Gad GF, El-Domany RA, Zaki S, Hossam M (2007) Ashour Characterization of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Minia, Egypt: prevalence, anibiogram and resistance mechanisms. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 60: 1010-1017. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkm348
  • Gales AC, Jones RN, Turnidge J (2001) Characterization of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” isolates: occurrence rates, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and molecular typing in the global SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 32 Suppl 2: S146-55.
  • Golia S, Suhani, Jyoti MS (2016) Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various Clinical Isolates and it Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 5(3): 247-253.
  • Hoque MM, Ahmad M, Khisa S, Uddin MN, Jesmine R (2015) Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” Isolated from Different Clinical Specimens. JAFMC Bangladesh. 11(1).
  • Igbalajobi OA, Oluyege AO, Oladeji AC, Babalola JA (2016) Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” Isolated from Clinical Samples in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State of Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal. 12(4): 1-6, Article no.BMRJ.22515.
  • Javiya VA, Ghatak SB, Patel KR, Patel JA. (2008). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India. Indian J Pharmacol. 40: 230-4. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.44156
  • Jombo GT, Jonah P, Ayeni JA (2008) Multiple resistant “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” in contemporary medical practice: Findings from urinary isolates at a Nigerian, University Teaching Hospital. Niger J Physiol Sci. 23(1-2): 105-9.
  • Lister PD, Wolter DJ, Hanson ND (2009) Antibacterial-Resistant “Pseudomonas aeruginosa”: Clinical impact and complex regulation of chromosomally encoded resistance mechanisms. Clin. Microbiol. 22(4): 582-610.
  • Micek ST, Lloyd AE, Ritchie DJ, Reichley RM, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH. (2005). “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” bloodstream infection: Importance of appropriate initial antimicrobial treatment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 49:1306-11. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.4.1306-1311.2005
  • Mohanasoundaram KM (2011) The antibiotic resistance pattern in the clinical isolates of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” in a tertairy care hospital; 2008-2010 (A 3 year study). J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 5(3): 491-94.
  • Okon K, Agukwe P, Oladosu W, Balogun S, Uba A (2009). Antibiotic resistance pattern of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary hospital in northeastern Nigeria. J. Microbiol. 8(2): 5-7.
  • Olayinka AT, Olayinka BO, Onile BA (2008) Prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” isolates in surgical units of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria: An indication for effective control measures.Annals of African Medicine. 1: 13-16.
  • Rajat RM, Ninama GL, Mistry K, Parmar R, Patel K, Vegad MM. (2012). Antibiotic resistance pattern in “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” species isolated at a tertiary care Hospital, Ahmadabad. Natl J Med Res. 2: 156-9.
  • Shewatatek G, Gizachew T, Molalegne B, Terefe G (2014) Drug sensitivity of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa” from wound infections in Jimma university specialized hospital, Ethiopia. J. Med. Med. Sci. Res. 3(2): 13-18.
  • Sobouti B, Ghavami Y, Asadifar B, Jafarzadeh M, Ghelman M, Vaghardoost R (2020) Determination of Serum Levels of Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Interleukin-10, and Tumor Necrosis-Alpha and their Relationship With The Total Body Surface Area in Children. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 41(3): 539-543. https://doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz180
  • Souli M, Galani I, Giamarellou H (2008) Emergence of extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in europe. Euro Surveill. 13(47): 1-11.
  • Sule A, Olusanya O (2000) In-vitro antimicrobial activities of fluoroquinolones compared with common antimicrobial agents against clinical bacterial isolates from parts of South Western Nigeria. Niger. Q. J. Hosp. Med. 10(1): 18-21.
  • Talbot GH, Bradley J, Edwards JE, Gilbert D, Scheld M, Barlett JG (2006) Antimicrobial availability task force of the infectious diseases society of America: Bad bugs need drugs: An update on the development pipeline from the antimicrobial availability task force of the infectious diseases society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 657-668. https://doi.org/10.1086/499819

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.