Preparation and characterization of nanohybrid-doxycycline and evaluation its inhibitory activity on locally isolated acinetobacter baumannii
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 1, pp. 1787-1794
  • Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Acinetobacter baumannii has shown high levels of resistance to antibiotics through a variety of mechanisms, creating very dangerous extensive Drug resistant (XDR) bacterial strains. One approach to meet this challenge is to design drugs, which are medically safe and have activity against resistant organisms. Doxycycline –zinc oxide a nanohybrid (DOX-ZnO) was prepared using direct ion exchange. The new nanohybrid antibiotic was identified by spectrophotometer devices, such as, FT-IR, XRD and AFM. The percentage of the nanohybride antibiotic loaded between zinc oxide layers was determined by using CHN device. Release mechanisms of doxycycline was monitored photometrically in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and acetate buffer (pH 5.2). The antimicrobial activity tests of DOX-ZnO and the synergic activity of DOX-ZnO with meropenem antibiotic were performed using agar diffusion methods on A. baumannii isolates. The results were showed appearance of new groups in DOX-ZnO spectrum in FTIR, which indicates the formation of new compound. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum revealed the appearance of new diffraction planes in the nanohybrid antibiotic spectrum in compare with spectrum of zinc oxid. The average particles diameters measured by AFM was 76.24 nm. The percentage of nano hybrid Doxycycline loaded between zinc oxide layers was 59.2%. Doxycycline release from zinc oxide layers in acetate buffer and phosphate buffer was 89.71% respectively. The antimicrobial activity of DOX-ZnO was showed inhibitory effect on isolated bacteria with highly synergic effect with meropenem antibiotic.


  • Abdeen R, Salahudeen N (2013) Modified Chitosan-Clay Nanocomposite as a Drug Delivery System Intercalation and In Vitro Release of Ibuprofen. Journal of Chemistry.Article ID 576370.
  • AL-Hamdani MSM (n.d.) Inhibitory efficiency determination of Nano prepared Oxytetracyclin and Tylosin antibiotics against bacterial cows mastitis in sacred Karbala province. University of Kerbala, College of Science.
  • Azzopardi EA, Ferguson EL, Thomas DW (2015) Development and validation of an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to test the antibacterial efficacy of antibiotic polymer conjugates. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 59(4): 1837-1843.‏
  • Bajpai SK, Jadaun M, Bajpai M, et al. (2017) Controlled release of Doxycycline from gum acacia/poly (sodium acrylate) microparticles for oral drug delivery. Inter. journal of biological macromolecules, 104: 1064-1071.
  • Baptista PV, McCusker MP, Carvalho A, Ferreira DA, Mohan NM, Martins M, Fernandes AR (2018) Nano-strategies to fight multidrug resistant bacteria - “A Battle of the Titans”. Frontiers in microbiology, 9.‏
  • Codjoe F, Donkor E (2018) Carbapenem resistance: a review. Medical Sciences, 6(1): 1.‏
  • Connell SR, Tracz DM, Nierhaus KH, Taylor DE (2003) Ribosomal protection proteins and their mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47(12): 3675-3681.
  • Cover NF, Lai-Yuen S, Parsons AK, Kumar A (2012) Synergetic effects of doxycycline-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for improving drug delivery and efficacy. International journal of nanomedicine, 7: 2411.‏
  • Egorove NS (1985) Antibiotics a scientific approach. Mir Publishers, Moscow.
  • Harvey R, Ferrier D (2005) Lippincott`s Illustrated Reviews.
  • Hendiani S, Abdi-Ali A, Mohammadi P, Kharrazi S (2015) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its synergistic effects in combination with imipenem and two biocides against biofilm producing Acinetobacter baumannii. Nanomedicine Journal, 2(4): 291-298.‏
  • Huang WC, Tsai PJ, Chen YC (2007) Functional gold nanoparticles as photothermal agents for selective-killing of pathogenic bacteria.‏
  • Jafarzadeh M, Mousavizadeh K, Joghataei MT, Hashemi Bahremani M, Safa M, Asghari SMA (2018) Fibroblast Growth Factor Antagonist Peptide Inhibits Breast Cancer in BALB/c Mice, 13(1): 348-354
  • Jiang Z, He X, Li J (2018) Synergy effect of meropenem-based combinations against Acinetobacter baumannii: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection and drug resistance, 11: 1083.‏
  • Khudheyer FY, Kzar KO, Bashi AM, Ali S, Jawad E, Faisal A, Al-Barry ZA (n.d.) Ciprofloxacin Intercalated with ZnO to Produce a Nanohybrid Used as a Delivery Machine.‏
  • Kogawa AC, Salgado HRN (2012) Doxycycline hyclate: a review of properties, applications and analytical methods. Int J Life Sci Pharma Res, 2(4): 11-25.‏
  • Kolekar TV, Yadav HM, Bandgar SS, Deshmukh PY (2011) Synthesis By Sol-gel Method And Characterization Of Zno Nanoparticles. Indian Streams Research Journal, I(I).
  • Lee JH, Yeo Y (2015) Controlled drug release from pharmaceutical nanocarriers. Chemical engineering science, 125: 75-84.
  • Li B, Webster TJ (2018) Bacteria antibiotic resistance: New challenges and opportunities for implant‐associated orthopedic infections. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 36(1): 22-32.‏
  • Liu J, Ma X, Jin S, Xue X, Zhang C, Wei T, et al. (2016) Zinc oxide nanoparticles as adjuvant to facilitate doxorubicin intracellular accumulation and visualize pH-responsive release for overcoming drug resistance. Molecular pharmaceutics, 13(5): 1723-1730.‏
  • Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, Paterson DL (2012) Multidrug‐resistant, extensively drug‐resistant and pandrug‐resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clinical microbiology and infection, 18(3): 268-281.‏
  • Manchanda V, Sanchaita S, Singh NP (2010) Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Journal of global infectious diseases, 2(3): 291.‏
  • Shanmuganathan S, Shanumugasundaram N, Adhirajan N, Lakshmi TR, Babu M (2008) Preparation and characterization of chitosan microspheres for doxycycline delivery. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73(2): 201-211.‏
  • Tuon FF, Rocha JL, Merlini AB (2015) Combined therapy for multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection–is there evidence outside the laboratory? Journal of medical microbiology, 64(9): 951-959.‏
  • Voicu G, Oprea O, Vasile BS, Andronescu E (2013) Anibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide-Gentamicin Hybrid Material. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures (DJNB), 8(3).‏
  • Willyard C (2017) The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats. Nature News, 543(7643): 15.‏
  • Yadav SK, Mishra B (2016) Preformulation studies on combination of ornidazole and doxycycline in pharmaceutical dosage forms: infra-red spectroscopy and simultaneous ultra-violet method development. J Chem Pharm Res, 8: 564-573.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.