Phenotypic detection and vancomycin MICs for methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nebulizer
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 1, pp. 2153-2161
  • Published Online: 30 Jun 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)

Abstract

Nebulizer and other respiratory care devices became as reservoir of pathogens when colonized with microorganisms and play important role in transmitted from patient to an another, Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens caused nosocomial infection in particular hospital respiratory infections. during a 6- month period 52 swab samples were collected from contaminated nebulizer masks, all samples were cultivated on mannitol salt agar then chromogenic agar (CHROMagarTM Staphylococcus aureus and CHROMagarTM MRSA) were used for characterizing S. aureus and MRSA, cefoxitin disk diffusion method were also performed, vancomycin sensitivity by disk diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration were evaluated using fluorescent microscope and subculture. 38.46% (20/52) were S. aureus identified on mannitol salt agar and on CHROMagarTM Staphylococcus aureus detected 19/52 (36.5%), 17 isolates of them were MRSA detected by CHROMagarTM MRSA and cefoxitin disk diffusion method, the vancomycin MICs value were 1.25µg/ ml of 64.71% and 1.75µg/ml of 35.29% . nebulizers applying by many different patients therefore can play a vital role in controlling on infection within a hospital, MRSA are associate with these infections detecting with significant numbers and resistant to many antibiotics, phenotypic detection like; chromogenic agars and cefoxitin deck diffusion method are highly recommended for rabid detection, vancomycin has high effective on MRSA and the best drug for treating bacterial resistance infections.

References

  • Abdul Jabbar RA (2017) Production of Intact Recombinant Human Parathyroid Hormone by Escherichia coli. PhD Thesis, University of Basrah, College of Science, Iraq.
  • Akpan A, Udoh VS (2017) Evaluation of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta crantz) Genotype for Yield and Yield Component, Tuber Bulking, Early Maturity in Cross River Basin Flood Plains, Itu, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 2(2): 68-73.
  • Al-Tameemi KAH (2018) Colonization of Pathogenic Microbes on Contaminated Nebulizer Devices for Respiratory Tract Diseases at Emergency Department in Hospitals. Journal of Natural Sciences Research.8(14):13-6.
  • Anand KB, Agrawal P, Kumar S, Kapila K (2009) Comparison of cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin screen agar and PCR for mecA gene for detection of MRSA. Indian journal of medical microbiology.27(1):27-9.
  • Bakr WM, Selim HS (2007) Chromagar Staph aureus Versus Blood Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar for Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus from Suppurative Skin Lesions. Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology.16(1):63-7.
  • Broekema NM, Van TT, Monson TA, Marshall SA, Warshauer DM (2009) Comparison of cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion methods for detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in a large-scale study. Journal of clinical microbiology. 47(1):217-9.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2013) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: 23rd informational supplement. CLSI document M100‑S23. Wayne, Pennsylvania.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2015) Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. Approved standard 10th ed. CLSI document M07-A10. Wayne, Pennsylvania.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2015) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial
  • D’Souza HA, Baron EJ (2005) BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus is superior to mannitol salt for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in complex mixed infections. American journal of clinical pathology.123(6):806-8.
  • Dawod SB, Qassim AA, Aaiz FL, Abdulkareem K (2020) Microbial Contamination of Hospital Nebulization and Link to of Nurse’s Staff Knowledge in Emergency Departments. Sch. J App Med Sci. ISSN2320-6691:894-96.
  • Diaz R, Afreixo V, Ramalheira E, Rodrigues C, Gago B (2018) Evaluation of vancomycin MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 24(2):97-104.
  • Disk Susceptibility Tests:12ed. CLSI document M02‐A12. Wayne, Pennsylvania.
  • Duran N, Ozer B, Duran GG, Onlen Y, Demir C (2012) Antibiotic resistance genes & susceptibility patterns in staphylococci. The Indian journal of medical research.135(3):389-96.
  • Ewig S, Torres A, El-Ebiary M, Fàbregas N, Hernandez C, Gonzalez J, Nicolas JM, Soto L (1999) Bacterial colonization patterns in mechanically ventilated patients with traumatic and medical head injury: incidence, risk factors, and association with ventilator-associated pneumonia. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine.159(1):188-98.
  • Foster TJ (2017) Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Current status and future prospects. FEMS microbiology reviews.41(3):430-49.
  • Gaillot O, Wetsch M, Fortineau N, Berche P (2000) Evaluation of CHROMagar Staph. aureus, a New Chromogenic Medium, for Isolation and Presumptive Identification of Staphylococcus aureus from Human Clinical Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 38(4):1587-91.
  • Hasan ZA (2016) Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) from Tonsils by CHROMagar Media. J Bio Innov. 5(4):570-73.
  • Hedin G, Fang H (2005) Evaluation of two new chromogenic media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for identifying Staphylococcus aureus and screening methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Journal of clinical microbiology.43(8):4242-4.
  • Hudzicki J (2009) Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test protocol. American Society for Microbiology.
  • Jadhav S, Sahasrabudhe T, Kalley V, Gandham N (2013) The microbial colonization profile of respiratory devices and the significance of the role of disinfection: a blinded study. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR.7(6):1021-6.
  • Jain A, Agarwal A, Verma RK (2008) Cefoxitin disc diffusion test for detection of meticillin-resistant staphylococci. Journal of Medical Microbiology.57(8):957-61.
  • Kali A, Stephen S, Umadevi S (2014) Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biomedical journal.37(6)411-4.
  • Kateete DP, Kimani CN, Katabazi FA, Okeng A, Okee MS, Nanteza A, Joloba ML, Najjuka FC (2010) Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials. 9(1):23.
  • Kluytmans J, Van Griethuysen A, Willemse P, Van Keulen P (2002) Performance of CHROMagar selective medium and oxacillin resistance screening agar base for identifying Staphylococcus aureus and detecting methicillin resistance. Journal of clinical microbiology.40(7):2480-2.
  • Kshetry AO, Pant ND, Bhandari R, Khatri S, Shrestha KL, Upadhaya SK, Poudel A, Lekhak B, Raghubanshi BR (2016) Minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control.5(1):27.
  • Micheel V, Hogan B, Köller T, Warnke P, Crusius S, Hinz R, Hagen RM, Schwarz NG, Frickmann H (2015) Screening agars for MRSA: evaluation of a stepwise diagnostic approach with two different selective agars for the screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Military Medical Research.2(1):18.
  • Nitin K, Hassani US (2016) Microbial Colonization Profile of Respiratory Devices. National Journal of Medical Research.6(2):165-67.
  • Prakash V, Lewis JS, Jorgensen JH (2008) Vancomycin MICs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates differ based upon the susceptibility test method used. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy.52(12):4528.
  • Rağbetli C, Parlak M, Bayram Y, Guducuoglu H, Ceylan N (2016) Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by years. Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases.2016.
  • Rello J, Diaz E (2003) Pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Critical care medicine.31(10):2544-51.
  • Rello J, Quintana E, Ausina V, Castella J, Luquin M, Net A, Prats G. (1991) Incidence, etiology, and outcome of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Chest.100(2):439-44.
  • Schultsz C, Meester HH, Kranenburg AM, Savelkoul PH, Boeijen-Donkers LE, Kaiser AM, de Bree R, Snow GB, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CJ (2003) Ultra-sonic nebulizers as a potential source of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing an outbreak in a university tertiary care hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection.55(4):269-75.
  • Sims JN, Leggett SS, Myla A (2020) Industrial Emissions and Asthma Prevalence. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 4(2): em0046.
  • Wilcox M, Al-Obeid S, Gales A, Kozlov R, Martínez-Orozco JA, Rossi F, Sidorenko S, Blondeau J (2019) Reporting elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: consensus by an International Working Group. Future microbiology.14(4):345-52.
  • Zhang E, Burbridge B (2011) Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: implications for the radiology department. American journal of roentgenology.197(5):1155-9.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.