AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Alfatlawi AS, Alsaidi MA, Almaliky NK, Abdulameer Alsherees HA. Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1), 113-120.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Alfatlawi et al., 2019)
Reference: Alfatlawi, A. S., Alsaidi, M. A., Almaliky, N. K., & Abdulameer Alsherees, H. A. (2019). Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(1), 113-120.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Alfatlawi et al., 2019)
Reference: Alfatlawi, Ameer S., Muntadher A. Alsaidi, Naseer K. Almaliky, and Hashim Ali Abdulameer Alsherees. "Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 1 (2019): 113-120.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Alfatlawi et al., 2019)
Reference: Alfatlawi, A. S., Alsaidi, M. A., Almaliky, N. K., and Abdulameer Alsherees, H. A. (2019). Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(1), pp. 113-120.

MLA
In-text citation: (Alfatlawi et al., 2019)
Reference: Alfatlawi, Ameer S. et al. "Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 1, 2019, pp. 113-120.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Alfatlawi AS, Alsaidi MA, Almaliky NK, Abdulameer Alsherees HA. Molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cholecystitis. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):113-20.

Abstract

Objectives: Cholecystitis is one of the most widespread bacterial infections with a global extension. These infections are predominantly caused by Escherichia coli. The purpose of the study was conducted to isolate and identify bacterial agents for gallbladder patients and identify the frequency of ESBLs genes among E. coli isolates obtained from patients with significance bacterial infection.
Method: Eighty isolates were recognized as the significant bacterial infection and diagnosed by growth of at least 105 colony forming units (CFU)/ml of pathogens in a culture. The isolates were identified by traditional biochemical tests, and confirmed by the API 20E system. Additionally, identification of E. coli was confirmed by PCR technique and sequencing. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics was performed by disk diffusion. Extend spectrum beta-lactamase was evaluated by double disc synergy test. The Molecular techniques were used to detect the most common four kinds of ESBLs; TEM, SHV, CTX-M, and OXA. Extend spectrum beta-lactamase was evaluated by double disc synergy test.
Results: A total of 80 specimens were collected, of which 69.0% were female and 31.3 % were from males, age ranged 25-65 years. Significant bacterial infection was found in 80 (63.0%) specimens, however the frequency was significantly higher in female than in males (female: 80%; male: 20%) in all age groups. The results of the current study showed that 50 (63%) specimens gave bacterial growth, which are divided to Gram negative bacteria (82%) and Gram positive bacteria (18%). E. coli was the most common (36.3%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.5%), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA (6.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.0%), Enterococci faecalis (5.0%) and Salmonella typhi (2.5%). The isolates appeared high frequency of the resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested (the rates of resistance varied from 9% to 100%), the most effective antibiotic were amikacin and imipenem (86% and 100% susceptible). All 29 E. coli isolates were studied, of which 22 (75.9%) exhibited potential ESBL production. All ESBL producing isolates carried at least one bla gene; 19 (86.3%) isolates carried blaCTX-M, 13 (59.0%) isolates carried blaSHV, 8(36.3%) isolates carried blaOXA genes and 18 (82.0%) isolates carried blaTEM gene.
Conclusions: A higher occurrence of ESBL is producing E. coli was observed warranting prompt the need of surveillance for effective management of such MDR strains. Although, MDR rates are high and therapeutic options are limited, some therapeutic options remain for E. coli in Al-Najaf such as amikacin and imipenem. DNA Sequencing for these isolates and using phylogenic tree to known substitution for bacterial, gene bank, and document.

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