Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) are closely related to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in infants and mothers. The purpose of this study was to find out the trends, characteristics, and outcomes of mothers and infants in GDM and PDGM to the patients who gave birth. This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research using secondary data from medical records of pregnant women with GDM and PGDM booked case who from 2013 to 2015. The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy during the period 2013-2015 amounted to 6.97%. In patients with GDM and PGDM, outputs in the form of occurrence of eclampsia, sepsis, ruptured perineum grade III/IV, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), and maternal mortality were not obtained. The results showed that GDM with preeclampsia was in 9 patients with OR of 0.74. In PGDM outcomes, blood sugar was not controlled in 4 patients, while 13 patients obtained preeclampsia with OR of 3.76. With the blood sugar regulation and monitoring of fetal well-being, the complications and morbidity and mortality to the mother and the fetus can be avoided.

References

  • Albai A, Lupascu N, Popescu S, Timar B, Potre O, Potre C, Timar R, (2018) The Influence of Hyperglycemia on the Outcome of Diabetic Pregnancies. Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases 25(2): 215–221. https://doi.org/10.2478/rjdnmd-2018-0025
  • Allen VM, Armson BA, Wilson RD, Blight C, Gagnon A, Johnson JA, Langlois S, Summers A, Wyatt P, Farine D, Armson BA, Crane J, Delisle MF, Keenan-Lindsay L, Morin V, Schneider CE, Van Aerde J, (2007) Teratogenicity Associated With Pre-Existing and Gestational Diabete. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 29(11): 927–934. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1701-2163(16)32653-6
  • Alves C, Casqueiro J, Casqueiro J, (2012) Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 16(7): 27. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.94253
  • Başaran N, Evliyaoğlu O, Sucu V, Bulut L, Dikker O, Tezcan F, Vardar M (2016) Changing of Uric Acid Levels by Age and Sex in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations, 7(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.5799/jcei.328707
  • Boivin S, Derdour-Gury H, Perpetue J, Jeandidier N, Pinget M, (2002) Diabetes and pregnancy. Annales d’Endocrinologie 63(5): 480–487.
  • Care D, Suppl SS, (2018) Management of diabetes in pregnancy: Standards of medical care in Diabetesd2018. Diabetes Care 41(January): S137–S143. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-S013
  • Cnattingius S, Lindam A, Persson M, (2017) Risks of asphyxia-related neonatal complications in offspring of mothers with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the impact of maternal overweight and obesity. Diabetologia 60(7): 1244–1251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4279-2
  • Cosson E, Benbara A, Pharisien I, Nguyen MT, Revaux A, Lormeau B, Sandre-Banon D, Assad N, Pillegand C, Valensi P, Carbillon L, (2013) Diagnostic and prognostic performances over 9 years of a selective screening strategy for gestational diabetes mellitus in a cohort of 18,775 subjects. Diabetes Care 36(3): 598–603. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-1428
  • Cunningham FG, Leveno Kenneth J, Bloom Steven L, HJC (2010) William Obstetrics 23Rd Edition. Ed. by Twickler Diane M., W. G. D. United States: Mc Graw Hill Medical.
  • Das V (2016) Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Principles of Critical Care in Obstetrics 2: 95–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2686-4_12
  • Ernawati R, Purwaka BT, Prasetyo B, (2018) Nutritional status of third trimester pregnant women correlates positively with birth weight. Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi 25(2): 41. https://doi.org/10.20473/mog.v25i22017.41-47
  • Firdiani YF, Zulkifli A, Nyorong M, (2018) Influence factors on blood glucose level of diabetes mellitus patients in Makassar. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series 20–24. https://doi.org/10.1145/3242789.3242804
  • Lawrence H, Nathan Reynolds A, Joseph Venn B, (2017) Perceptions of the Healthfulness of Foods of New Zealand Adults Living With Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 49(4): 339-345.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2016.10.020
  • Lehtonen L, Gimeno A, Parra-Llorca A, Vento M, (2017) Early neonatal death: A challenge worldwide. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 22(3): 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2017.02.006
  • Pane YS, Ganie RA, Lindarto D, Lelo A, (2018) The effect of gambier extract on the levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 11(10): 121–124. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i10.26620
  • Putri NA, Notobroto HB, (2020) Viability Status of Diabetes Melitus Patients With Complications of Hyperglycemia, Cetoasidosis, and Gangrene. Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi 8(1): 72. https://doi.org/10.20473/jbe.v8i12020.72-80
  • Roostarini JW, Soelistijo SA, Novida H, Sutjahjo A, Wibisono S, Prajitno JH, Susanto H, Miftahussurur M, Tjokroprawiro A, (2019) Lipoprotein (A) and arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes mellitus. New Armenian Medical Journal 13(1): 74–78.
  • Rusdiana, Savira M, Syahputra M, Santoso A, (2018) Creatinine plasma at uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at primary health care in Binjai city, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 125(1):. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012168
  • Schneider S, Hoeft B, Freerksen N, Fischer B, Roehrig S, Yamamoto S, Maul H (2011) Neonatal complications and risk factors among women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 90(3): 231–237. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0412.2010.01040.x
  • Situmorang PC, Ilyas S (2018) Study of preeclampsia in placenta, kidney, and hepatic diseases. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 11(11): 21–28. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i11.27540
  • Soewondo P, Pramono LA (2011) Prevalence, characteristics, and predictors of pre-diabetes in Indonesia. Medical Journal of Indonesia 20(4): 283–294. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.v20i4.465
  • Sweeting AN, Ross GP, Hyett J, Molyneaux L, Constantino M, Harding AJ, Wong J (2016) Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Early Pregnancy: Evidence for Poor Pregnancy Outcomes Despite Treatment. Diabetes Care 39(1): 75–81. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-0433
  • Tazhbenova ST, Millere I, Yermukhanova LS, Sultanova G, Turebaev M, Sultanova BP (2019) Effectiveness of diabetes mellitus management program at primary health care level. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 16(6): em172. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/115848
  • Uddin MN (2013) Diabetes Mellitus and Preeclampsia. Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1(3): 1016. Available at: https://www.jscimedcentral.com/Obstetrics/obstetrics-1-1016.php
  • Yang GR, Dye TD, Li D, (2019) Effects of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus on macrosomia and birth defects in Upstate New York. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 155(1): 107811. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107811
  • Yessoufou A, Moutairou K, (2011) Maternal diabetes in pregnancy: Early and long-term outcomes on the offspring and the concept of ‘metabolic memory’. Experimental Diabetes Research 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/218598

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.