AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Sang VT, Hung ND, Uyen LP, Nghiep ND, Se-Kwon K. Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1), 49-55.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Sang et al., 2019)
Reference: Sang, V. T., Hung, N. D., Uyen, L. P., Nghiep, N. D., & Se-Kwon, K. (2019). Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(1), 49-55.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Sang et al., 2019)
Reference: Sang, Vo Thanh, Ngo Dai Hung, Le Phuong Uyen, Ngo Dai Nghiep, and Kim Se-Kwon. "Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 1 (2019): 49-55.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Sang et al., 2019)
Reference: Sang, V. T., Hung, N. D., Uyen, L. P., Nghiep, N. D., and Se-Kwon, K. (2019). Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(1), pp. 49-55.

MLA
In-text citation: (Sang et al., 2019)
Reference: Sang, Vo Thanh et al. "Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 1, 2019, pp. 49-55.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Sang VT, Hung ND, Uyen LP, Nghiep ND, Se-Kwon K. Investigation of the biological activities of Phu Quoc Sim fruits Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(1):49-55.

Abstract

Background: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., locally known as Sim, is a flowering plant belonging to the family Myrtacea. It have been used in traditional Vietnamese medicine for a long time for treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gynaecopathy, stomachache, and wound healing. In this study, the potential bioactivities of ethanol extract of Sim fruits due to scavenging free radicals, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediator production, and inhibiting histamine release were investigated in vitro.
Material and Methods: Sim fruits were obtained from from Duong Dong Town, Phu Quoc district, Kien Giang province, Viet Nam. The crude extract was prepared with Sim fruits in ethanol 80%. The free radical scavenging activity was conducted via DPPH and ABTS assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured by colorimetric assay and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was conducted by Western blot. Histamine release was measured by spectrofluorometric assay.
Results: Ethanol extract Sim fruits (EESF) was found to be able to scavenge DPPH and ABTS+ radicals with IC50 values of 94 ± 12 and 83 ± 9 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, NO production and iNOS protein expression were suppressed by EESF treatment at a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, EESF was effective in reducing histamine release from calcium ionophore-activated RBL-2H3 mast cells.
Conclusion: These results indicated the potential health benefit effects of Sim fruit due to its biological activities. These evidences supported it as a promising biomaterial for alternative medicine.

References

  • Cui C, Zhang S, You L, Ren J, Luo W, Chen W, Zhao M (2013) Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) and identification of the major anthocyanins. Food Chemistry 139: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.107
  • Dachriyanus, Salni, Sargent MV, Skelton BW, Soediro I, Sutisna M, White A, Yulinah E (2002) Rhodomyrtone, an antibiotic from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Australian Journal of Chemistry 55: 229-232. https://doi.org/10.1071/CH01194
  • David B, Wolfender JL, Dias DA (2014) The pharmaceutical industry and natural products: historical status and new trends. Phytochemistry Reviews 14: 299–315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-014-9367-z
  • Deng Z, Zink T, Chen HY, Walters D, Liu FT, Liu GY (2009) Impact of actin rearrangement and degranulation on the membrane structure of primary mast cells: a combined atomic force and laser scanning confocal microscopy investigation. Biophysical Journal 96: 1629-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2008.11.015
  • Dias DA, Urban S, Roessner U (2012) A Historical Overview of Natural Products in Drug Discovery. Metabolites 2: 303–336. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo2020303
  • Gautam R, Jachak SM (2009) Recent developments in anti-inflammatory natural products. Medicinal Research Reviews 29: 767-820. https://doi.org/10.1002/med.20156
  • Geetha KM, Sridhar C, Murugan V (2010) Antioxidant and healing effect of aqueous alcoholic extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk on chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research 3: 2860-2862.
  • Ghasemzadeh A, Azarifar M, Soroodi O, Jaafar HZE (2012) Flavonoid compounds and their antioxidant activity in extract of some tropical plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6: 2639-2643. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.1531
  • Gordon S (1998) The role of the macrophage in immune regulation. Research in Immunology 149: 685-688. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-2494(99)80039-X
  • Grabowski PS, Wright PK, Van’t Hof RJ, Helfrich MH, Ohshima H, Ralston SH (1997) Immunolocalization of inducible nitric oxide synthase in synovium and cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. British journal of rheumatology 36: 651–655. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/36.6.651
  • Hazrulrizawati, Hamid and Zeyohannes, Sileshi S, Yusoff MM (2017) Rhodomyrtus Tomentosa: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 10(1): 10-16.
  • Jutel M, Akdis M, Akdis CA (2009) Histamine, histamine receptors and their role in immune pathology. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 39: 1786–1800. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03374.x
  • Kanwar JR, Kanwar RK, Burrow H, Baratchi S (2009) Recent advances on the roles of NO in cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Current Medicinal Chemistry 16: 2373–2394. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986709788682155
  • Kim JH, Kismali G, Gupta SC (2018) Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Integrating Traditional Medicine into Modern Chronic Diseases Care. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018: 9837863. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9837863
  • Lai TN, André C, Rogez H, Mignolet E, Nguyen TB, Larondelle Y (2015) Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of the sim fruit (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa). Food Chemistry 168: 410-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.081
  • Le PU, Ngo DH, Vo TS (2018) Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Achieving High Content and Antioxidant Activities of the Total Phenolic Compounds from Phu Quoc Sim Fruit (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hasak.). Journal of Medicinal Materials 23: 157-166.
  • Lee H, Kim YO, Kim H, Kim SY, Noh HS, Kang SS, Cho GJ, Choi WS, Suk K (2003) Flavonoid wogonin from medicinal herb is neuroprotective by inhibiting inflammatory activation of microglia. The FASEB Journal 17: 1943–1944. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0057fje
  • Lim TK (2012) Edible medicinal and non medicinal plants, 1st ed. Springer, New York.
  • McAdam E, Haboubi HN, Forrester G, Eltahir Z, Spencer-Harty S, Davies C, Griffiths AP, Baxter JN, Jenkins GJ (2012) Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are important mediators of reflux-induced cell signalling in esophageal cells. Carcinogenesis 33: 2035-2043. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs241
  • McInnes IB, Leung BP, Field M, Wei XQ, Huang FP, Sturrock RD, Kinninmonth A, Weidner J, Mumford R, Liew FY (1996) Production of nitric oxide in the synovial membrane of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis patients. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 184: 1519–1524. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.184.4.1519
  • Milián E, Díaz AM (2004) Allergy to house dust mites and asthma. Puerto Rico health sciences journal 23: 47-57.
  • Saising J, Hiranrat A, Mahabusarakam W, Ongsakul M, Voravuthikunchai SP (2008) Rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. as a natural antibiotic for staphylococcal cutaneous infections. Journal of Health Science 54: 589–595. https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.54.589
  • Vo TS, Kim SK (2013) Fucoidans as a Natural Bioactive Ingredient for Functional Foods. Journal of Functional Foods 5: 16-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.08.007
  • Vo TS, Kim YS, Ngo DH, Le PU, Kim SY, Kim SK (2018a) Spirulina maxima peptides suppress mast cell degranulation via inactivating Akt and MAPKs phosphorylation in RBL-2H3 cells. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 118(B): 2224-2229.
  • Vo TS, Kong CS, Kim SK (2011) Inhibitory effects of chitooligosaccharides on degranulation and cytokine generation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Carbohydrate Polymer 84: 649–655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.12.046
  • Vo TS, Le PU, Ngo DH (2018b) The increased gamma-aminobutyric acid content by optimizing fermentation conditions of bacteria from kimchi and investigation of its biological activities. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences 12: 369-376.
  • Vo TS, Ngo DH, Kang KH, Park SJ, Kim SK (2014) The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 58: 2226-2234. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400329
  • Vo TS, Ngo DH, Kim SK (2012a) Marine algae as a potential pharmaceutical source for anti-allergic therapeutics. Process Biochemistry 47: 386-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2011.12.014
  • Vo TS, Ngo DH, Ta QV, Wijesekara I, Kong CS, Kim SK (2012b) Protective effect of chitin oligosaccharides against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in BV-2 microglia. Cell Immunology 277: 14-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.06.005
  • Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY (2011) Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 12: 744–751. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1100041

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.