Eurasian Journal of Biosciences


Fat products are an important component of additional raw materials used in the production of bakery products. They are used to improve the rheological properties of the dough, improve the taste and nutritional value of bakery products, and improve their digestibility. In this study, chemical interesterification of a three-component blend based on fully hydrogenated oil, palm oil, and rapeseed oil in a ratio of 20/20/60, respectively, was performed to obtain interesterified fat for use in baking. The article presents the results of the study of fatty acid composition, melting point, content of solid triglycerides (STG) and trans-isomers of fatty acids of interesterified fat. To identify the optimal conditions for the process in enlarged experiments, mathematical processing of experimental data was performed to obtain regression equations, on the basis of which the optimization of the chemical interesterification process was carried out, which allowed determining its optimal operating modes: temperature of the process, amount of catalyst, duration of the interesterification process on the optimization criterion – the content of trans-isomers of fatty acids. The interesterified fat obtained in this way had the specified physical and chemical properties, had the necessary range of plasticity, and the content of trans-isomers of fatty acids met the requirements of the current legislation.


  • Ahmadi, L., Wright, A. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2008). Chemical and enzymatic interesterification of tristearin/triolein‐rich blends: Chemical composition, solid fat content and thermal properties. European journal of lipid science and technology, 110(11), 1014-1024.
  • Azizkhani, M., Kamkar, A., & Nejad, A. S. M. (2011). Effects of tocopherols on oxidative stability of margarine. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 33(1), 134-137.
  • Bekbolatova M., Sakenova B., Temirova I., (2018).Acta Technica 63 No. 1B/2018, 1–8 c Institute of Thermomechanics CAS, v.v.i. IF – 0,04, Чешская Республика.
  • Dracheva L.V. (2016)”Trans Fats - One of the Key Factors in the Growth of Cardiovascular Diseases in Russia.” Baking products, no. 1, pp. 32–33.
  • Farmani J., Hamedi M., Safari M., Madadlou A.,(2007). Trans-free Iranian vanaspati through enzymatic and chemical transesterification of triple blends of fully hydrogenated soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils. Food Chem. 102(3), 827–833 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.015.
  • Farmani J., Safari M., Hamedi M.,(2009). Trans-free fats through interesterification of canola oil/palm olein or fully hydrogenated soybean oil blends. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111(12),1212–1220
  • Kim IH, Lee SM, Lee BM, Park HK, Kim JY, Kwon KI, Kim JW, Lee JS, Kim YH (2008) Interesterification of olive oil with a fully hydrogenated fat in a batch reactor using step changes in temperature. JAgricFoodChem 56:5942–5946. doi: 10.1021/jf8007585.
  • Kovalenko G.A., Perminova L.V., Beklemishev A.B (2017). “Recombinant Strains - Producers of Thermostable Lipase from Thermomyces Lanuginosus. Biocatalytic processes of Interesterification and Esterification of Vegetable Oil Components.” Current Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 27.
  • Lipases as Biocatalysts for the Synthesis of Structured Lipids / R. C. R. Jala, P. Hu, T. Yang [et al.] // Methods in Molecular Biology. – 2012. – Vol. 861. – P. 403–433. DOI:
  • Livinskii A.A (2009). “Modern Technologies for Processing Palm Oil.” Fat-and-oil Industry, no. 3, pp. 10–11.
  • Meng Z., Liu Y., Shan L., Jin Q., Wang X.,(2010). Reduction of graininess formation in beef tallow-based plastic fats by chemical interesterification of beef tallow and canola oil. J. Am. Oil Chem.Soc. 87(12), 1435–1442 DOI: 10.1007/s11746-010-1627-5
  • Ribeiro A.P.B, Grimaldi R, Gioielli LA, Gonc¸alves LAG (2009) Zero trans fats from soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: physico-chemical properties and food applications. Food Res Int 42:401–410. DOI:10.1016
  • Ribeiro A.P.B., Basso R.C., Grimaldi R., Gioielli L.A., Gonc¸alves L.A.G., (2009).Effect of chemical interesterification on physicochemical properties and industrial applications of canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends. J. Food Lipids 16(3), 362–381 ISSN: 1065-7258
  • Rousseau D., Marangoni A.G., (2008).Chemical interesterification of food lipids: theory and practice, in Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology, ed. by C.C. Akoh, D.B. Min p. 267.
  • Sellami, M., Ghamgui, H., Frikha, F., Gargouri, Y., & Miled, N. (2012). Enzymatic transesterification of palm stearin and olein blends to produce zero-trans margarine fat. BMC biotechnology, 12(1), 1-8.
  • Shelamova S.A., Vasilenko O.A., Derkasonova N.M. (2018).”Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oils in Obtaining Dietary Fat Products.” Bulletin of Voronezh State Agrarian University, vol. 57, no. 2 pp. 131–139. DOI:
  • Stender, S (2014). Tracing artificial trans-fat in popular foods in Europe: a market basket investigation /S. Stender, A. Astrup, J. Dyerberg // BMJ Open. –Vol. 4, № 5. DOI:
  • Tardy AL, Morio B, Chardigny JM, Malpuech-Brugere C (2011) Ruminant and industrial sources of trans-fat and cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. Nutr Res Rev 24:111–117. doi: 10.1017/S0954422411000011
  • Technical regulations of the Customs Union for oil and fat products 024/2011
  • Thompson, Minihan & Williams, 2011). Thompson, A. K., Minihan, A. M., & Williams, C. M. (2011). Trans fatty acids, insulin resistance and diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(5), 553–564. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.240.
  • Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Ross MB, Sampson LA, Hennekens CH: Intake of trans-fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 1993, 341:581–585. DOI: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)90350-p
  • Zaiceva L.V (2011). “The Use of Enzymatic Interesterification for the Modification of Oils.” Food Industry, no.5, pp. 22–25.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.