Impact of diatomite priming of seeds of hordeum vulgaris in salinity

Abstract

Barley (Hordeumvulgare L.) seeds were grown in plastic pots in order to study the effect of diatomite (DTM) on the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and aldehyde oxidase (AO EC 1.2.3.14) under salt stress. AO is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abscisic aldehyde to abscisic acid, a phytohormone of adaptation. 10-day old seedlings of barley were also evaluated for salt stress response in terms of free proline and photosynthetic pigments in the presence of 200 mM NaCl in combination with diatomite. Before the germination seeds were primed in different concentrations of diatomite supernatants obtained from its suspensions of 5g, 10g and 20g DTM in 100ml H2O. Control seeds were primed in distilled water and sodium silicate Na2SiO3(1.5mM/L) separately. Three replicates of all experiment options were grown in the presence and absence of 200 mM NaCl. Plant seedlings were harvested on 10th day of germination and the activities of the enzymes, the content of free proline and photosynthetic pigments were determined. Our results showed that the enzyme activities and proline content in seedlings were considerably lower than those in control plants (i.e. seed priming in the water and growth in NaCl). However, photosynthetic pigments (i.e. chlorophills a and b and carotenoids) were significantly increased. The results showed that increasing concentrations of diatomite had a positive effect to the morphological characteristics of plants, i.e., the biomass of leaves and roots of seedlings was higher.

References

  • Abdalla MM (2010) Sustainable effects of diatomite on the growth criteria and phytochemical contents of Vicia faba plants. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1(5): 1076-1089.
  • Abdalla MM (2010) Sustainable effects of diatomite on the growth criteria and phytochemical contents of Vicia faba plants. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1(5): 1076-1089.
  • Abdalla MM (2011) Beneficial effects of diatomite on the growth, the biochemical contents and polymorphic DNA in Lupinusalbus plants grownunder water stress. Agric. Biol 2(2): 207-220.
  • Ahmad R, Zaheer S, Ismail S (1992) Role of silicon in salt tolerance of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) Plant Sci 85: 43-50.
  • Al-aghabary K, Zhu Z, Shi Q (2005) Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato plants under salt stress. Journal of plant nutrition 27(12): 2101-2115.
  • Al-aghabary K, Zhu Z, Shi Q (2005) Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato plants under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 27: 2101-2115.
  • Alikulov Z, Nayekova SK, Kulataeva M (2018) Biochemical mechanisms of the improvement of plant tolerance to the salinity and drought by the diatomite. Bulletin of the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, a series of biologically science 2: 41-48.
  • Alikulov ZA, Nekova SK, Satkanov M, Isaeva AU, Aubakirova KM, Myrzabaeva MT (2018) Comparative characteristics of various samples of the Mugalzhar diatomite. Bulletin of the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, a series of natural-technical 3.
  • Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39: 205-207.
  • Bazzi K (2015) Expanded of Informal Jobs in Iranian Border Cities, Case: Zabol-Iran. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 4(3), 47-56.
  • Bowler C, Van Montagu M, Inze D (1992) Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant MolBiol 43: 83-116.
  • Bradbury M, Ahmad R (1990) The effect of silicon on the growth of Prosopisjuliflora growing in saline soil. Plant soil 125: 71-74.
  • Gong H, Chen K, Chen G, Wang S, Zhang C (2003) Effects of silicon on the growth of wheat and its antioxidative enzymatic system. Chin.J. Soil Sci 34: 55-57.
  • Gong H, Zhu X, Chen K, Wang S, Zhang C (2005) Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Science 169(2): 313-321.
  • Gunes A, Inal A, Bagci EG, Coban S (2007) Silicon-mediated changes on some physiological and enzymatic parameters symptomatic of oxidative stress in barley grown in sodic-B toxic soil. Journal of Plant Physiology 164(6): 807-811.
  • Gurmani AR, Bano A, Najeeb U, Zhang J, Khan SU, Flowers TJ (2013) Exogenously applied silicate and abscisic acid ameliorates the growth of salinity stressed wheat (‘Triticum aestivum’L) seedlings through Na+ exclusion. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7(8):1123-1130.
  • Haghighi M, Pessarakli M (2013) Influence of silicon and nano-silicon on salinity tolerance of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at early growth stage. Scientia Horticulturae 161: 111-117.
  • Lewin J, Reimann BEF (1969) Silicon and plant growth. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 20: 289-304.
  • Li H, Zhu Y, Hu Y, Han W, Gong H (2015) Beneficial effects of silicon in alleviating salinity stress of tomato seedlings grown under sand culture. Acta physiologiae plantarum 37(4): 1-9.
  • Liang Y (1999) Effects of silicon on enzyme activity and sodium, potassium and calcium concentration in barley under salt stress. Plant and soil 209(2): 217-224.
  • Liang Y, Chen Q, Zhang W, Ding R (2002) Exogenous silicon increases antioxidant enzyme activities and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeumvulgare L.). Abstract of Second Silicon in Agriculture Conference: 140-151.
  • Liang Y, Sun W, Zhu YG, Christie P (2007) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environmental pollution 147(2):422-428.
  • Liang YC, Shen QR, Shen ZG, Ma T.S (1996) Effects of silicon on salinity tolerance of two barley cultivars. J Plant Nutr 19: 173-183.
  • Lichtenthaler HK, Wellburn AR (1983) Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochem.Soc.Trans 11: 591-592.
  • Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002) Soil, fertilizer, and plant silicon research in Japan. Elsevier.
  • Matychenkov VV, Snyder GS (1997) The method for determination of plant available silica in soil. Agrochemistry, 1: 76-84.
  • Moussa HR (2006) Influence of exogenous application of silicon on physiological response of salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L.). Inter.J. Agric.Biol 8(2): 293-297.
  • Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59: 21803-21824.
  • Parida AK, Das AB, Mohanty P (2004) Defense potentials to NaClia a mangrove, Bruguieraparvitflora: differential changes of isoform of some antioxidativeenzymes. J Plant Physiol 161: 531-542.
  • Rohanipoor A, Norouzi M, Moezzi A, Hassibi P (2013) Effect of silicon on some physiological properties of maize (Zea mays) under salt stress. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 7(20): 71-79.
  • Satkanov M, Myrzabaeva M, Nekova SK, Insepov Z, Alikulov Z (2017) Influence of diatomite on salt tolerance and drought tolerance of cereal seedlings. Biological Sciences of Kazakhstan 2: 105-114.
  • Savvas D, Giotis D, Chatzieustratiou E, Bakea M, Patakioutas G (2009) Silicon supply in soilless cultivations of zucchini alleviates stress induced by salinity and powdery mildew infections. Environmental and experimental botany 65(1):11-17.
  • Seo M, Koiwai H, Akaba S, Komano T, Oritani T, Kamiya Y, Koshiba T (2000) Abscisic aldehyde oxidase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The Plant Journal 23(4): 481-488.
  • Shen X, Zhou Y, Duan L, Li Z, Eneji AE, Li J (2010) Silicon effects on photosynthesis and antioxidant parameters of soybean seedlings under drought and ultraviolet-B radiation. Journal of plant physiology 167(15): 1248-1252.
  • Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 62(1): 10-16.
  • Velichko AK, Solovev VB, Gengin MT (2009) Methods of laboratory definition of the common peroxide of destroying activity of enzymes of plants. IzvestiaPenzenskogogosudarstvennogopedagogicheskogouniversitetaimeni V.G. Belinskogo 18: 44-48.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.