Immunohistochemical evaluation of CD3 T-cell lymphocyte and CD20 B-cell markers in Iraqi patients with celiac disease

Abstract

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine mucosa of a proportion of people with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or -DQ8 haplotypes following gluten intake. The main pathologic lesion is composed of villous reduction in height with increase in crypt activity that is manifested by higher number of cell proliferation in addition to inflammatory infiltrate of epithelium and lamina propria with predominance of lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important auxiliary method for pathologists as it specifically visualizes distribution and amount of a certain molecule in the tissue using specific antigen-antibody reaction. The aim of the current study was to correlate CD3 and CD20 immunohistochemical expression of lymphocytic population to histopathological changes of celiac disease. The current study was carried out at Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital and a number of private histopathology laboratories in Al-Diwaniyah province, mid-Euphrates region of Iraq. The study was started on January 2019 and ended on March 2020. Sixty patients with clinical features suggestive of celiac disease were enrolled in the current study. Every patient was subjected to esaphagogastrodeuodenoscopy (OGD) at the gastrointestinal center. A number of duodenal biopsies were taken for each patient and were preserved in 10 % formalin solution. Later on, these biopsies were referred to private histopathology laboratory for purpose of histological handling and perpetration of histological sections.CD3 immunohistochemical expression was as following: Less than half staining pattern was seen in 10 (16.7 %) cases, approximately half staining pattern was seen in 10 (16.7 %) cases and most cases (56.7 %) showed more than half sating pattern. This fining correlated with histological finding that most cases are March 3 cases. CD20 immunohistochemical expression was as following: Mild crypt involvement was reported in 16.7 %, Moderate crypt involvement was reported in 43.3 % and intense crypt involvement was reported in 40.0 %.

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