Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Alabdallach AZ, Nikishov AA, Volkova NA, et al. Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1), 719-725.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Alabdallach et al., 2020)
Reference: Alabdallach, A. Z., Nikishov, A. A., Volkova, N. A., Vetokh, A. N., Rebouh, N. Y., Semenova, V. I., . . . Norezzine, A. (2020). Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), 719-725.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Alabdallach et al., 2020)
Reference: Alabdallach, A. Z., A. A. Nikishov, N. A. Volkova, A. N. Vetokh, N. Y. Rebouh, V. I. Semenova, A. K. Petrov, E. O. Rystsova, M. V. Bolshakova, E. A. Krotova, S. G. Drukovsky, and A. Norezzine. "Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2020 14 no. 1 (2020): 719-725.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Alabdallach et al., 2020)
Reference: Alabdallach, A. Z., Nikishov, A. A., Volkova, N. A., Vetokh, A. N., Rebouh, N. Y., Semenova, V. I., . . . Norezzine, A. (2020). Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), pp. 719-725.

MLA
In-text citation: (Alabdallach et al., 2020)
Reference: Alabdallach, A. Z. et al. "Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 14, no. 1, 2020, pp. 719-725.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Alabdallach AZ, Nikishov AA, Volkova NA, Vetokh AN, Rebouh NY, Semenova VI, et al. Histological and morphometric characteristics of chicken embryos with different genotypes. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):719-25.

Abstract

Background: The GFP gene is commonly used in biotechnology and is used as an indicator. Chicken embryos are also the most important experimental animals used in modern research for easy access to embryos, as well as easy gene injection at an early stage. Study design: Study of the influence of genetic engineering manipulations on the histological and morphometric parameters of organs and tissues of chicken embryos. Methods: We took the three groups: - Normal (H), Transgenic (G) and Crossbred (HxG). Research stage was divided into two parts: The first step was to study the internal and external characteristics of the eggs. At the second stage, morphological and histological changes in organs and tissues in embryos were studied. Results: The incubation eggs of the studied genotypes met the regulatory requirements for morphometric indicators of egg quality. Eggs from transgenic chickens (group 2) had statistically significantly lower values of the quality index of dense protein - units of Hough. Compared to the eggs of the 1st and 3rd groups, the difference was 4.8 and 3.6 Hau units, respectively (P≥0.95). On the 14th day of incubation, the embryos of the 1st and 3rd groups were statistically significantly superior the weight of group 2 embryos was 17.4% and 13.5%, respectively (P≥0.95). By day 18, differences in the weight of the embryos persist. Embryos from eggs from genetically modified chickens (group 2) on the 18th day of incubation had the smallest absolute values according to linear indices of individual parts of the body. Genetic engineering manipulations affect the morphology of the internal organs of embryos. Embryos of the 2nd group of 18 days of age have a heart mass of 7.6 and 5.7% more than peers from the 1st and 3rd groups, and liver mass is 13.0 and 19.3% less, respectively. the mass of the stomach is 4.4 and 20.8% less, respectively (P≥0.95). In group 2 embryos, the number of convoluted seminiferous tubules in the field of view of the microscope is 1.7 and 1.5 times less compared to groups 1 and 2 (P≥0.95). Conclusions Genetic manipulations significantly reduce almost all morphological and histological parameters in group 2 embryos and cause negative consequences in the development of chicken embryos.

References

  • Agedah EC, Ineyougha ER, Izah SC, Orutugu LA (2015) Enumeration of total heterotrophic bacteria and some physico-chemical characteristics of surface water used for drinking sources in Wilberforce Island, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 3(1): 28-34.
  • Belay G, Minyamer T, Masresha G (2018) The Microbial Profile and Contaminants of Bubugn, An Ethiopian House Hould Fermented Beverage. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1): 17-24.
  • Kaleri HA, Xiang L, Aniwashi J, Xu S (2011) Oviduct-specific expression of tissue plasminogen activator in laying hens. Genetics and molecular biology 34(2): 231-236.
  • McGrew MJ, Sherman A, Ellard FM, Lillico SG, Gilhooley HJ, Kingsman AJ, Mitrophanous KA, Sang H (2004) Efficient production of germline transgenic chickens using lentiviral vectors. EMBO reports 5(7):728-733.
  • Ribeiro LA, Mariani PD, Azevedo JL, Rech EL, Schmidt GS, Coutinho LL (2001) A biolistic process for in vitro gene transfer into chicken embryos. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 34(9):1115-1124.
  • Scott BB, Carlos L (2005) Generation of tissue-specific transgenic birds with lentiviral vectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16443N-16447.
  • Takeuchi K, Sereemaspun A, Inagaki T, Hakamata Y, Kaneko T, Murakami T, Takahashi M, Kobayashi E, Ookawara S (2003) Morphologic characterization of green fluorescent protein in embryonic, neonatal, and adult transgenic rats. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists 274(2): 883-886.
  • Vetokh AN, Vokova NA, Alabdallah Z, Nikishov AA (2018) Dynamic of growth and development in transgenic hens during embryogenesis. Theoretical and Applied Problems of Agro-Industry 4(37): 34-37.
  • Vokova LA, Vetokh AN, Volkova NA, Alabdallah Z, Nikishov AA (2018) Features histostructure organs of transgenic chicken. Theoretical and Applied Problems of Agro-Industry 5(38): 34-38.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.