Greening the environment in living a new lifestyle in the COVID-19 era


The essential health protocol for living in the COVID-19 era requires antiseptic and disinfecting agents, as well as clean water for personal washing and objects related to the conditions of human activity. The results of personal hygiene measures and the cleanliness of objects are additional wastewater discharges, and increased peak discharges of wastewater, compared to conditions without the protocol. In addition, the quality of wastewater is compounded by enrichment of toxic substances for microbes. As a consequence, the wastewater needs to be treated from the source to the disposal to the environment. Various studies that have been carried out previously indicate the potential of plants in eliminating antiseptic and disinfectant substances contained in wastewater. Therefore, this paper discusses specifically the contribution of greening the environment in treating wastewater rich in these toxic substances.


  • Balacco, G., Antonio Carbonara, Andrea Gioia, Vito Iacobellis and Alberto Ferruccio Piccinni (2017). Evaluation of Peak Water Demand Factors in Puglia (Southern Italy). Water 2017, 9, 96; https://doi:10.3390/w9020096.
  • Bao, R., & Zhang, A. (2020). Does lockdown reduce air pollution? Evidence from 44 cities in northern China. Science of the Total Environment, 731.
  • Colmenero-Flores, J. M., Franco-Navarro, J. D., Cubero-Font, P., Peinado-Torrubia, P., & Rosales, M. A. (2019, October 1). Chloride as a beneficial macronutrient in higher plants: New roles and regulation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. MDPI AG.
  • Curneen, S., & Gill, L. W. (2016). Willow-based evapotranspiration systems for on-site wastewater effluent in areas of low permeability subsoils. Ecological Engineering, 92, 199–209.
  • Cutillas, P. P., Cataldo, M. F., Zema, D. A., de Vente, J., & Boix-Fayos, C. (2018). Greening-up effects on streamflow and evapotranspiration in mediterranean catchments. An example of taibilla catchment (Se Spain). Bosque, 39(1), 119–129.
  • Deacutis, C. F. (2016). Dissolved oxygen. In Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series (pp. 202–203). Springer Netherlands.
  • Ellis, J. B. (2013). Sustainable surface water management and green infrastructure in UK urban catchment planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 56(1), 24–41.
  • García-Ávila, F., Patiño-Chávez, J., Zhinín-Chimbo, F., Donoso-Moscoso, S., Flores del Pino, L., & Avilés-Añazco, A. (2019). Performance of Phragmites Australis and Cyperus Papyrus in the treatment of municipal wastewater by vertical flow subsurface constructed wetlands. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 7(3), 286–296.
  • Gupta, K., Roy, A., Luthra, K., Maithani, S., & Mahavir. (2016). GIS based analysis for assessing the accessibility at hierarchical levels of urban green spaces. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 18, 198–211.
  • Hattori, H., Kuniyasu, K., Chiba, K., & Chino, M. (2006). Effect of chloride application and low soil pH on cadmium uptake from soil by plants. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 52(1), 89–94.
  • Lawrence, A., Phillips, O. L., Ismodes, A. R., Lopez, M., Rose, S., Wood, D., & Farfan, A. J. (2005). Local values for harvested forest plants in Madre de Dios, Peru: Towards a more contextualised interpretation of quantitative ethnobotanical data. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(1), 45–79.
  • Leeper, G. W. (1947). The forms and reactions of manganese in the soil. Soil Science. 63(2): 79-94.
  • Lewis, O., Home, R., & Kizos, T. (2018). Digging for the roots of urban gardening behaviours. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 34, 105–113.
  • Liópez-Chuken, U. J., López-Domi ́nguez, U., Parra-Saldivar, R., Moreno-Jiménez, E., Hinojosa-Reyes, L., Guzmán-Mar, J. L., & Olivares-Sáenz, E. (2012). Implications of chloride-enhanced cadmium uptake in saline agriculture: Modeling cadmium uptake by maize and tobacco. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9(1), 69–77.
  • Mahato, S., Pal, S., & Ghosh, K. G. (2020). Effect of lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic on air quality of the megacity Delhi, India. Science of the Total Environment, 730.
  • Mandi, L. (2020). Urgent Needs to Consider and Assess the Transmission of Coronavirus (COVID-19) via Hospital Sewage and Wastewater. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations, 11(3), em00745.
  • Mangkoedihardjo, S. (2007). Leaf area for phytopumping of wastewater. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 5(1), 37–42.
  • Mangkoedihardjo, S. (2010). Individual or communal sanitation services?: Decision based on wastewater storage capacity. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(3), 226–228.
  • Mangkoedihardjo, S., & April, S. (2012). Compost on evapotranspiration bed planted with yellow flag for treatment of wastewater containing anionic surfactant. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(3), 1630–1633.
  • Nagajyoti, P. C., Lee, K. D., & Sreekanth, T. V. M. (2010).
  • Nakada, L. Y. K., & Urban, R. C. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on the air quality during the partial lockdown in São Paulo state, Brazil. Science of the Total Environment, 730.
  • Newbold, T., Hudson, L. N., Hill, S. L. L., Contu, S., Lysenko, I., Senior, R. A., … Purvis, A. (2015). Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity. Nature, 520(7545), 45–50.
  • Omaghomi, T., Buchberger, S., Cole, D., Hewitt, J., & Wolfe, T. (2020). Probability of Water Fixture Use during Peak Hour in Residential Buildings. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 146(5).
  • Ordóñez-Barona, C. (2017, August 1). How different ethno-cultural groups value urban forests and its implications for managing urban nature in a multicultural landscape: A systematic review of the literature. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. Elsevier GmbH.
  • Parvin, S., Hossen, A., Rahman, W., Hossen, I., Halim, A., Biswas, B. K., & Khan, A. S. (2019). Uptake Hazardous Dye from Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth as Bio-Adsorbent. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3(1), em0065.
  • Patterson, R. (2006). Evapotranspiration Bed Designs for Inland Areas. Septic Safe, 1–5. Retrieved from on 29 May 2020.
  • Peng, L. L. H., & Jim, C. Y. (2015). Economic evaluation of green-roof environmental benefits in the context of climate change: The case of Hong Kong. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14(3), 554–561.
  • Reynolds, C. C., Escobedo, F. J., Clerici, N., & Zea-Camaño, J. (2017). Does “greening” of neotropical cities considerably mitigate carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Medellin, Colombia. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(5).
  • Samudro, G., Syafrudin, Wardana, I., Harida Samudro, & Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo. (2018). Determination of the specific energy of mixed waste decomposition in compost solid phase microbial fuel cells (CSMFCS). International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(11), 1316–1324.
  • Samudro, H., Faqih, M., E Sudarma, E. (2011). Green architecture criteria for high-rise building that serves as a rental office in the city of Surabaya. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7(5): 566-571.
  • Sandoval, L., Zamora-Castro, S. A., Vidal-Álvarez, M., & Marín-Muñiz, J. L. (2019). Role of wetland plants and use of ornamental flowering plants in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A review. Applied Sciences (Switzerland). MDPI AG.
  • Scheepers HM. (2012). Deriving peak factors for residential indoor water demand by means of a probability based end-use model. Thesis Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Division of Water and Environmental Engineering. Stellenbosch University. Retrieved from on 29 May 2020.
  • Sonneveld, C., & Voogt, S. J. (1975). Studies on the manganese uptake of lettuce on steam-sterilised glasshouse soils. Plant and Soil, 42(1), 49–64.
  • Subiza-Pérez, M., Hauru, K., Korpela, K., Haapala, A., & Lehvävirta, S. (2019). Perceived Environmental Aesthetic Qualities Scale (PEAQS) – A self-report tool for the evaluation of green-blue spaces. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 43.
  • Tyrväinen, L., Silvennoinen, H., & Kolehmainen, O. (2003). Ecological and aesthetic values in urban forest management. In Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (Vol. 1, pp. 135–149). Elsevier GmbH.
  • Wege, S., Gilliham, M., & Henderson, S. W. (2017, June 1). Chloride: Not simply a “cheap osmoticum”, but a beneficial plant macronutrient. Journal of Experimental Botany. Oxford University Press.
  • Wireko-Manu, F. D., & Amamoo, C. (2017). Comparative Studies on Proximate and Some Mineral Composition of Selected Local Rice Varieties and Imported Rice Brands in Ghana. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, 4(1), 1-7.
  • World Health Organization archives (2004)e. Disinfectants and antiseptics. Accessed on 1 July 2020.
  • World Health Organization. (‎2020)a‎. COVID-19: operational guidance for maintaining essential health services during an outbreak: interim guidance, 25 March 2020. World Health Organization. Accessed on 29 May 2020.
  • World Health Organization. (‎2020)b‎. Recommendations to Member States to improve hand hygiene practices to help prevent the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. Interim guidance 1 April 2020. Accessed on 29 May 2020.
  • World Health Organization. (‎2020)c‎. WHO SAVES LIVES: Clean your hands in the context of COVID-19. Accessed on 29 May 2020.
  • World Health Organization. (‎2020)d‎. Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19. Interim guidance 5 June 2020. Accessed on 12 July 2020.
  • World Health Organization. (‎2020)f‎. Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the context of COVID-19. Interim guidance 15 May 2020. Accessed on 12 July 2020.
  • World Health Organization. (‎2020)g‎. Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations. Revised April 2010. Accessed on 29 May 2020.
  • Yao, L., Wu, Z., Wang, Y., Sun, S., Wei, W., & Xu, Y. (2020). Does the spatial location of green roofs affects runoff mitigation in small urbanized catchments? Journal of Environmental Management, 268.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.