Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ahmad TA, Ganjo DG. Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1), 149-160.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Ahmad & Ganjo, 2020)
Reference: Ahmad, T. A., & Ganjo, D. G. (2020). Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), 149-160.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Ahmad and Ganjo, 2020)
Reference: Ahmad, Tablo A., and Dilshad G.A. Ganjo. "Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2020 14 no. 1 (2020): 149-160.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Ahmad and Ganjo, 2020)
Reference: Ahmad, T. A., and Ganjo, D. G. (2020). Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 14(1), pp. 149-160.

MLA
In-text citation: (Ahmad and Ganjo, 2020)
Reference: Ahmad, Tablo A. et al. "Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 14, no. 1, 2020, pp. 149-160.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ahmad TA, Ganjo DG. Fungal isolates and their bioremediation for pH, chloride, tph and some toxic heavy metals. Eurasia J Biosci. 2020;14(1):149-60.

Abstract

In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of different strains of native soil fungi (isolated from oil-contaminated environments) in the restoration of oilfield water-based drill-cuttings. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was used for the isolation of fungi. About 0.5 g of fungal hyphae containing fungal isolates (after special treatment) used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. PCR product sequencing and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of isolates were sent to GenBank for molecular evolutionary analyses. The evolutionary analyses and phylogenetic tree then was built by MEGA Version4. Out of 68 native hydrocarbon-degrading fungi; only four isolates were identified as the most potent strains, namely; Aspergillus niger-MK452260.1 (F1) A. fumigatus-KU321562.1 (F2); A. flavus-MH270609.1 (F4) and Penicillium chrysogenum-MK696383.1 (F3). Bio-augmentation (in-situ) experiments (individual/mixed cultures) were tested in 10 triplicates, excluding the control. Results (after two months of bioremediation) revealed that; F2+F4 isolates rendered the pH of drill-cuttings from strong alkaline to nearly neutrality level. F3+F4 isolates reduced chloride content by 25 folds. The isolate F2 showed the highest percentage in a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The isolate F3 showed the highest potential in the discount of lead, while the isolate F1 bioaccumulated arsenic more efficiently.

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