Foliar application of potassium nitrate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid affect some fruit splitting related characteristics and biochemical traits of mandarin cv. ‘page’

Abstract

Fruit splitting and quality are the most values in mandarin cv. ‘Page’ since they are playing the main role in the production and exporting potential. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluated the foliar application of KNO3 (0, 1 and 2%) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 0, 50 and 100 mg/L) at three stages (full bloom, end of petal fall, and end of June drop) during two growing seasons (2016 and 2017) on some fruit splitting related characteristics and biochemical traits of mandarin cv. ‘Page’. Foliar application of KNO3 and 2,4-D treatment significantly reduced fruit splitting severity, peel firmness and SSC/TA ratio, but significantly enhanced fruit size, β-galactosidase and PG activity, SSC, TA, vitamin C, TPC, and TAC as compared with control. A negative correlation was revealed between PG and β-galactosidase activity and fruit splitting severity. Moreover, a synergistic effect of KNO3 and 2,4-D treatments was found in treated fruits as the highest content of obtained in KNO3 2% + 2,4-D 100 mg/L treatment. Overall, it is proposed that the foliar application of KNO3 2% + 2,4-D 100 mg/L in mandarin cv. ‘Page’ trees could be more suitable to reduce fruit splitting and improve fruit quality.

References

  • Abbas F, Fares A (2009) Best management practices in citrus production. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 3: 1-11.
  • Agusti M, Almela V, Aznar M, Otmani ME, Pons J (1994) Satsuma mandarin fruit size increased by 2,4-DP. HortScience 29: 279-281. doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI.29.4.279
  • Ali A, Summers LL, Klein GJ, Lovatt CJ (2000) Albedo breakdown in California. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture Congress 2: 1090-1093.
  • Almela V, Zargoza S, Primi-Millo E, Agusti M (1994) Hormonal control of splitting in ‘Nova’ mandarin fruit. Journal of Horticultural Science 69: 969-973. doi: 10.1080/00221589.1994.11516534
  • Alva AK, Mattos JD, Paramasivam S, Patil B, Dou H (2006) Potassium management for optimizing citrus production and quality. International Journal of Fruit Science 6: 3-43. doi: 10.1300/J492v06n01_02
  • Anthony MF, Coggins Jr CW (1999) The efficacy of five forms of 2,4-D in controlling preharvest fruit drop in citrus. Scientia Horticulturae 81: 267-277. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(99)00015-1
  • Baogang W, Jianhui W, Hao L, Jianyong Y, Jingjing Z, Lin L, Yu W, Xiaoyuan F, Jiankang C, Weibo J (2008) Reduced chilling injury in mango fruit by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the antioxidant response. Postharvest Biology and Technology 48: 172-181. doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.10.005
  • Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Science and Technology 28: 25-30. doi: 10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  • Chater JM (2015) The effects of foliar nutrient applications on split, yield, and internal fruit quality of ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). PhD Thesis, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.
  • Chater JM, Garner LC (2018) Foliar nutrient applications to ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). II. Effects on leaf nutrient status and fruit split, yield and size. Scientia Horticulturae 242: 207-213. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.07.015
  • Cronjé PJR, Stander, OPJ, Theron KI (2013) Fruit splitting in citrus. Horticultural Reviews 41: 177-200. doi: 10.1002/9781118707418.ch04
  • Davies PJ (1995) Plant Hormones, Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Erner Y, Goren R, Monselise SP (1976) Reduction of peel roughness of ‘Shamouti’ orange with growth regulators. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 101: 513-515.
  • Faize M, Sugiyama T, Faize L, Ishii H (2003) Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from Japanese pear: possible involvement in resistance against scab. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 63: 319-327. doi: 10.1016/j.pmpp.2004.03.006
  • Gaaliche B, Ladhari A, Zarrelli A, Mimoun MB (2019) Impact of foliar potassium fertilization on biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of fig (Ficus carica L.). Scientia Horticulturae 253: 111-119. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2019.04.024
  • Garcia-Luis A, Duarte AMM, Kanduser M, Guardiola JL (2001) The anatomy of the fruit in relation to the propensity of citrus species to split. Scientia Horticulturae 87: 33-52. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(00)00158-8
  • Greenberg J, Kaplan I, Fainzack M, Egozi Y, Giladi B (2006) Effects of auxins sprays on yield, fruit size, fruit splitting and the incidence of creasing of ‘Nova’ mandarin. Acta Horticulturae 727: 249-254. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.727.28
  • Grossmann K (2000) Mode of action of auxin herbicides: a new ending to a long, drawn out story. Trends Plant Science 5: 506-508. doi: 10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01791-X
  • Guardiola JL (2000) Regulation of flowering and fruit development: endogenous factors and exogenous manipulation. Proceeding of the 9th International Society for Citriculture. 3-7 December 2000, Florida, 342-346.
  • Juan L, Jiezhong C (2017) Citrus fruit-cracking: Causes and occurrence. Horticultural Plant Journal 3: 255-260. doi: 10.1016/j.hpj.2017.08.002
  • Khandaker MM, Boyce AN, Osman N, Hossain ABMS (2012) Physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume]Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu) as affected by growth regulator application. Scientific World Journal Article ID 728613. doi: 10.1100/2012/728613
  • Ladanyia M (2010) Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation. Academic Press, Waltham.
  • Lu PL, Lin C (2011) Physiology of fruit cracking in wax apple (Syzygium samarangense). Journal of Plant Science 8: 70-76. doi: 10.3126/botor.v8i0.5954
  • Ma Q, Zhu L, Feng S, Xu R, Kong D, Deng X, Cheng Y (2015) Fluroxypyr—a potential surrogate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for retarding calyx senescence in postharvest citrus fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 105: 17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2015.03.006
  • Marschner P (2012) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, Waltham.
  • Moctezuma E, Smith DL, Gross KC (2003) Antisense suppression of a β-galactosidase gene (TB G6) in tomato increases fruit cracking. Journal of Experimental Botany 54: 2025-2033. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erg214
  • Modise DM, Likuku AS, Thuma M, Phuti R (2008) The influence of exogenously applied 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on fruit drop and quality of navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 2131-2137.
  • Raghavan C, Ong EK, Dalling MJ, Stevenson TW (2005) Effect of herbicidal application of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Arabidopsis. Functional & Integrative Genomics 5: 4-17. doi: 10.1007/s10142-004-0119-9
  • Raphael AS, Moshe F, Steve A, Ruth BA (2007) Effect of synthetic auxins on fruit development of ‘Bing’ cherry (Prunus avium L.). Scientia Horticulturae 114: 275-280. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2007.07.010
  • Shiri MA, Ghasemnezhad M, Fattahi Moghaddam J, Ebrahimi R (2014) Fruit growth and sensory evaluation of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit in response to preharvest calcium chloride application and orchard location. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 79: 183-189.
  • Shiri MA, Ghasemnezhad M, Fattahi Moghaddam J, Ebrahimi R (2016a) Enhancing and maintaining nutritional quality and bioactive compounds of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit: Comparison the effectiveness of different CaCl2 spraying times. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 40: 850-862. doi:10.1111/jfpp.12663
  • Shiri MA, Ghasemnezhad M, Fattahi Moghaddam J, Ebrahimi R (2016b) Efficiency of CaCl2 spray at different fruit development stages on the fruit mineral nutrient accumulation in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Journal of Elementology 21: 195-209. doi: 10.5601/jelem.2015.20.2.927
  • Shiri MA, Ghasemnezhad M., Bakhshi D, Saadatian M (2011) Effect of ascorbic acid on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of packaged fresh cut table grape. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10: 2506-2515.
  • Singh RP, Sharma YP, Awasthi RP (1993) Influence of different cultural practices on pre-mature fruit cracking of pomegranate. Progressive Horticulture 22: 92-96. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1
  • Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RS (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152-178. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1
  • Spiegel-Roy P, Goldschmidt EE (1996) Biology of Citrus. Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511600548
  • Stander OPJ (2013) Fruit split and fruit size studies on citrus. PhD Thesis, Stellenbosch University.
  • Stander OPJ, Theron KI, Cronje PJR (2014) Foliar 2,4-D application after physiological fruit drop reduces fruit splitting of Mandarin. HortTechnology 24(6): 717-723. doi: 10.21273/HORTTECH.24.6.717

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.