Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Alkhudhairy MK, Alshammari MMM. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 1881-1889.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Alkhudhairy & Alshammari, 2019)
Reference: Alkhudhairy, M. K., & Alshammari, M. M. M. (2019). Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 1881-1889.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Alkhudhairy and Alshammari, 2019)
Reference: Alkhudhairy, Miaad K., and Majida M. Meteab Alshammari. "Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 1881-1889.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Alkhudhairy and Alshammari, 2019)
Reference: Alkhudhairy, M. K., and Alshammari, M. M. M. (2019). Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 1881-1889.

MLA
In-text citation: (Alkhudhairy and Alshammari, 2019)
Reference: Alkhudhairy, Miaad K. et al. "Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1881-1889.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Alkhudhairy MK, Alshammari MMM. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI in Iraq. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1881-9.

Abstract

Background and Objective: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) are the most common seen during pregnancy. Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in E. coli is an important mechanism for resistance to β-lactams especially third generation cephalosporins (TGC) and monobactams. This study aims to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli among pregnant women with ASB in Al-Najaf province, Iraq.
Methodology: A total of 214 randomly selected, asymptomatic pregnant women were studied from September 1st 2017 to February 31st 2018 in Al-Najaf Province. Urine culture tests for the presence of an uropathogenic E. coli. All isolates were tested for susceptibility by using disk diffusion method. Phenotypic ESBL production were detected using four methods: modified Hodge test, CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test, double disc synergy test, and streaking on CHROMagarTM ESBL agar test. All phenotypic ESBL producing E. coli isolates were screened for blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M, genes by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Out of 574 asymptomatic pregnant females, 188(32.8%) women were positive for culture. The most common uropathogenic bacteria isolated was Escherichia coli 76(40.4%). ESBL producing E. coli were 18 (23.7%) determined by using four phenotypic methods. All ESBL producers were resistant 18 (100%) to most of β-lactam antibiotics under study, but still high sensitive 18(100%) to Fosfomycin, Levofloxacin and Carbapenem. 7(9.2%) isolates were found to be ESBL producer by using Multiplex PCR, and 5 (71.4%) isolates carried more than one type of ESBL genes. Two (28.6%) isolates carried only blaCTX-M gene. blaCTX-M gene was most dominant and present in all isolates. blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes were detected in 3(42.8%) isolates, blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes in 2 (28.6%) isolates.
Conclusion: The most common cause of ASB among pregnant women was E. coli. ESBL producing E. coli isolates were found in low percentage and resistant to most of β-lactam antibiotics, but no isolate produce carbapenemase. blaCTX-M gene was predominant in ESBL producers rather than other genes.

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