Exploration of the relationship of vitamin B12 with some anthropometric measurements in Type2 diabetic patients
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 2, pp. 2893-2901
  • Published Online: 07 Sep 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most prevalent metabolic unrest affecting the people all over the world. Vitamin B12 (Vit B12), is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the eight B vitamins, metabolically important Vit B12 deficiency later will consequence in diabetes-related complications. current data was undertaken to exploration of the relationship of Vit B12 with some anthropometric measurements in type2 diabetic patients. Materials and methods: This study consisted of 60 patients with T2DM, attending Al- Ramadi teaching hospital and Al-Fallujah teaching hospital and 24 healthy individuals as controls. Serum Vit. B12 level was determined by ELISA technique while weight, height, waist, thoracic, neck, and hip circumferences carefully measured, also body mass index (BMI), waist/neck ratio (W/N), waist/thoracic ratio (W/T), waist/hip ratio (W/H) and were documented. Results: Vitamin B12, was found to be decreased in the patients with T2DM as compared to controls (P< 0.000l), and waist to hip ratio, waist to thoracic, and Body mass index were importantly greater in T2DM patients than in HCs with (P < 0.000l) for these parameters. Vit. B12 has important negative correlation with fasting serum glucose (FSG), weight, (P<0.001), HC, NC, BMI (p<0.05), W/H, W/T (p>0.05), while positive relationship between thoracic circumference (TC) and W/N (p= 0.05) was noticed. Studied variables presented the following descending order of area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) FSG (1), BMI (0.875 (Vit. B12 (0.825), W/H (0.8743), W/T (0.7837), weight (0.764), W/N (0.6715), W. C (0.7646) H. C (0.6444). Conclusion: Serum Vit. B12 level can be used as a novel biomarker in identification type 2 DM, also BMI, W/H and W/T may be a good biomarker in diagnosis type 2 DM.


  • Ahmed, S., & Rohman, S. (2016). Study of serum Vitamin B12 and its correlation with Lipid profilein Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res, 5(4), 92-103.‏
  • Akabwai, G. P., Kibirige, D., Mugenyi, L., Kaddu, M., Opio, C., Lalitha, R., ... & Sajatovic, M. (2016). Vitamin B12 deficiency among adult diabetic patients in Uganda: relation to glycaemic control and haemoglobin concentration. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 15(1), 1-7.
  • Allen, L. H. (2008). Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Food and nutrition bulletin, 29(2_suppl1), S20-S34.‏
  • Al-Maskari, M.Y.; Waly, M.I.; Ali, A.; Al-Shuaibi, Y.S. and Ouhtit, A. (2012) Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia promote oxidative stress in adult type 2 diabetes.Nutrition, 28(7-8): e23-e26.
  • Al-Maskari, M.Y.; Waly, M.I.; Ali, A.; Al-Shuaibi, Y.S. and Ouhtit, A. (2012) Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia promote oxidative stress in adult type 2 diabetes.Nutrition, 28(7-8): e23-e26.
  • Almdal, T., Scharling, H., Jensen, J. S., & Vestergaard, H. (2008). Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men. European journal of internal medicine, 19(1): 40-45.
  • Almubarak, F. A. (2016). The Association Between Known Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes, and the Body Mass Index of Diabetic Adults.‏University of Arkansas, Fayetteville:1-57
  • Alzaman, N., & Ali, A. (2016) . Obesity and diabetes mellitus in the Arab world. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 11(4): 301-309
  • American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes-(2018). DiabetesCare;41: S13-27.
  • Bae, J. P., Lage, M. J., Mo, D., Nelson, D. R., & Hoogwerf, B. J. (2016). Obesity and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus: Analysis of physician electronic health records in the US from 2009–2011. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(2): 212-220.‏
  • Baltaci, D., Kutlucan, A., Öztürk, S., Karabulut, I., Yildirim, H. A., Celer, A., et al. (2012). Evaluation of vitamin B-12 level in middle-aged obese women with metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome: case-control study. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 42(5), 802-809.‏
  • Baltaci, D., Kutlucan, A., Turker, Y., Yilmaz, A., Karacam, S., Deler, H., et al. (2013). Association of vitamin B12 with obesity, overweight, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, and body fat composition; primary care-based study. Med Glas (Zenica), 10 (2):203-10.‏
  • Bottiglieri, T., Laundy, M., Crellin, R., Toone, B. K., Carney, M. W., & Reynolds, E. H. (2000). Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 69(2): 228-232.
  • Bozorgmanesh, M., Hadaegh, F., Zabetian, A., & Azizi, F. (2011) . Impact of hip circumference and height on incident diabetes: results from 6‐year follow‐up in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetic Medicine, 28(11): 1330-1336.‏
  • Cade, W. T. (2008). Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting. Physical therapy, 88(11): 1322-1335.
  • Chang, C. C., Hsu, J. M., Davis, R. L., & Chow, B. F. (1957). Effect of Vitamin-B12 on Liver Diphosphopyridine Nucleotide. In Federation Proceedings 16 (1): 163-164.
  • Chapman, L. E., Darling, A. L., & Brown, J. E. (2016). Association between metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes & metabolism, 42(5): 316-327.‏
  • Ekpenyong, C. E., Akpan, U. P., Ibu, J. O., & Nyebuk, D. E. (2012). Gender and age specific prevalence and associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria. Diabetologia Croatica, 41(1).‏
  • Fotiou, P., Raptis, A., Apergis, G., Dimitriadis, G., Vergados, I., & Theodossiadis, P. (2014). Vitamin status as a determinant of serum homocysteine concentration in type 2 diabetic retinopathy. Journal of diabetes research,
  • Ganz, M. L., Wintfeld, N., Li, Q., Alas, V., Langer, J., & Hammer, M. (2014). The association of body mass index with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a case–control study nested in an electronic health records system in the United States. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome, 6(1): 50
  • Han, T. S., Sattar, N., & Lean, M. (2006). Assessment of obesity and its clinical implications. Bmj, 333(7570): 695-698.
  • Huang, T., Qi, Q., Zheng, Y., Ley, S. H., Manson, J. E., Hu, et al. (2015). Genetic predisposition to central obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes: two independent cohort studies. Diabetes Care, 38(7), 1306-1311.
  • Huang, Y. C., Chang, S. J., Chiu, Y. T., Chang, H. H., & Cheng, C. H. (2003). The status of plasma homocysteine and related B-vitamins in healthy young vegetarians and nonvegetarians. European journal of nutrition, 42(2): 84-90.‏
  • Huebner, B. J. (2019). Waist Circumference and the Relation to Aerobic Exercise and Perception of Illness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,Masters Theses. Eastern Illinois University,1-94.
  • Jayashri, R., Venkatesan, U., Rohan, M., Gokulakrishnan, K., Rani, C. S. S., Deepa, M., et al,. (2018) . Prevalence of vitamin B 12 deficiency in South Indians with different grades of glucose tolerance. Acta diabetologica, 55(12): 1283-1293
  • Kamath, A., Shivaprakash, G., & Adhikari, P. (2011). Body mass index and waist circumference in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending a diabetes clinic. International Journal of Biological & Medical Research, 2(3): 636–638.
  • Kaye, S. M., Pietiläinen, K. H., Kotronen, A., Joutsi‐Korhonen, L., Kaprio, J., Yki‐Järvinen, H., et al. (2012). Obesity‐related derangements of coagulation and fibrinolysis: a study of obesity‐discordant monozygotic twin pairs. Obesity, 20(1): 88–94
  • Ko, S. H., Ko, S. H., Ahn, Y. B., Song, K. H., Han, K. D., Park, Y. M., ... et al . (2014). Association of vitamin B12 deficiency and metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Korean medical science, 29(7): 965-972.‏
  • Lee, J. J., Pedley, A., Therkelsen, K. E., Hoffmann, U., Massaro, J. M., Levy, D., et al,. (2017). Upper body subcutaneous fat is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. The American journal of medicine, 130(8): 958-966.
  • Ling, C. T., & Chow, B. F. (1954). Effect of vitamin B12 on ribose formation in erythrocytes. In Fed. Proc. 13: 838.‏
  • Mahalle, N., Garg, M. K., Naik, S. S., & Kulkarni, M. V. (2014). Study of pattern of dyslipidemia and its correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with proven coronary artery disease. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 18(1): 48.‏
  • Malouf, R., Evans, J. G., & Sastre, A. A. (2003). Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for cognition and dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).‏
  • Millar, S. R., Perry, I. J., Van den Broeck, J., & Phillips, C. M. (2015). Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults. PloS one, 10 (6).
  • Miller, A., Korem, M., Almog, R., & Galboiz, Y. (2005). Vitamin B12, demyelination, remyelination and repair in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the neurological sciences, 233(1-2), 93-97.‏
  • Misra, A., Soares, M. J., Mohan, V., Anoop, S., Abhishek, V., Vaidya, et al. (2018). Body fat, metabolic syndrome and hyperglycemia in South Asians. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 32(11): 1068-1075.
  • Nair, M. (2007). Diabetes mellitus, part 1: physiology and complications. British journal of nursing, 16(3), 184-188.
  • National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes, & Digestive and Kidney Disease (2004).
  • Nor Afiqah, A., Saizah, S., & Ernie Eileen, R. R. (2016). A Cryopreservation Protocol for the Malaysian Fresh Water Microalgal Strain. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 5(1), 1-6.
  • Oh R, Brown D (2003). Vitamin B12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician
  • Parker, E. D., Pereira, M. A., Stevens, J., & Folsom, A. R. (2009). Association of hip circumference with incident diabetes and coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. American journal of epidemiology, 169(7): 837-847.‏
  • Pflipsen, M. C., Oh, R. C., Saguil, A., Seehusen, D. A., Seaquist, D., & Topolski, R. (2009). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 22(5): 528-534.‏
  • Snijder, M. B., Zimmet, P. Z., Visser, M., Dekker, J. M., Seidell, J. C., & Shaw, J. E. (2004) . Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia: the AusDiab Study. International journal of obesity, 28(3): 402-409
  • Valdés-Ramos, R., Ana Laura, G. L., Beatriz Elina, M. C., & Alejandra Donaji, B. A. (2015). Vitamins and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders), 15(1), 54-63.‏
  • Volaco A, Martins CM, Soares JQ, Cavalcanti AM, Moyses ST, Filho RP, et al,.(2017). Neck circumference and its correlation to other anthropometric parameters and fnnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC). Curr Diabetes Rev.;14(5):464–7
  • World Health Organization. (2019). Classification of diabetes mellitus.‏
  • Yajnik, C., Deshpande, S. S., Lubree, H. G., Naik, S. S., Bhat, D. S., Uradey, B. S., ... & Yudkin, J. S. (2006). Vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in rural and urban Indians. Japi, 54(775), 82.‏
  • Yamada, K. (2013). Cobalt: its role in health and disease. In Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. 295-320. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Yamada, K. (2013). Cobalt: its role in health and disease. In Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. 295-320. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Zhang, M., Wang, B., Liu, Y., Sun, X., Luo, X., Wang, C., et al. (2017). Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Cardiovascular diabetology, 16(1): 30.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.