Evaluation of some biochemical levels in patients with Cutaneous leishmaniasis serum and their relationship with antioxidant enzymes
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 1, pp. 1999-2006
  • Published Online: 30 Jun 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)

Abstract

The study aimed to know the levels of trace elements in the serum of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis as well as some anti-oxidant elements and their relationship, where copper recorded a significant increase in the infected group mean±SD (777.01 ± 95.98 ppb) compared to the control group (667.1 ± 134.10 ppb). The serum iron level showed significant decrease in the infection group (801.33 ± 87.41 ppb) compared to the control group (879.4 ± 98.23 ppb). Serum selenium levels were significantly lower for the infected group (22.39 ± 8.6 ppb) compared to control group (33.96 ± 4.6 ppb). Also, the levels of zinc in the serum of the ingected group recorded a significant decrease of (1.04 ± 0.4 ppm) compared to the control group (1.17 ± 0.3 ppm). With regard to the levels of metallic oxidation of malondialdehyde in the group of cutaneous leishmaniasis, it recorded a significant increase (2.543 ± 0.419 µmol / L) compared to the group of control that recorded (1.720 ± 0.184 µmol / L). Antioxidant enzymes recorded statistically significant variations that included a significant (P <0.05) decrease of glutathione peroxidase antioxidant in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (291.59 ± 149.79 pg / ml) compared to the group of control subjects (339.69 ± 132.07 pg / ml). A significant elevation (P< 0.05) of Superoxide dismutase antioxidant was observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (0.0314 ± 0.026 pg / ml) compared to the control group of patients (0.128 ± 0.09 pg / ml). Whereas, the catalysts recorded a significant decrease in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (3.856 ± 0.76 U / mL) compared to the control group (4.607 ± 0.447 U / mL).

References

  • Al-Mayali HMH, Al-Hassani MKK (2016) Morphological Descriptive Study of Phlebotominae Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Eastern Al-Hamza District/Al-Diwaniya City. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 5(9): 667-674.
  • Álvarez SI, Castañón SG, Ruata MLC, Aragüés EF, Terraz PB, et al. (2007) Updating of normal levels of copper, zinc and selenium in serum of pregnant women. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 21: 49-52.
  • Alzate JF, Arias AA, Moreno-Mateos D, Álvarez-Barrientos A, Jiménez-Ruiz A (2007) Mitochondrial superoxide mediates heat-induced apoptotic-like death in Leishmania infantum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 152(2): 192-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2007.01.006
  • Asmaa Q, Salwa A-S, Al-Tag M, Adam A-S, Li Y, Osman BH (2017) Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara’b District, Taiz, Yemen. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 16(1): 47.
  • Aston N, Watt N, Morton I, Tanner M, Evans G (2000) Copper toxicity affects proliferation and viability of human hepatoma cells (HepG2 line). Human & experimental toxicology, 19(6): 367-376. https://doi.org/10.1191/096032700678815963
  • Bagchi M, Mukherjee S, Basu M (1993) Lipid peroxidation in hepatic microsomal membranes isolated from mice in health and in experimental leishmaniasis. Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics, 30(5): 277-281.
  • Biswas T, Ghosh D, Mukherjee N, Ghosal J (1997) Lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes in visceral leishmaniasis. The Journal of parasitology, 83(1): 151-152.
  • Carneiro PP, Conceição J, Macedo M, Magalhães V, Carvalho EM, Bacellar O (2016) The role of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the killing of Leishmania braziliensis by monocytes from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. PloS one, 11(2).
  • De Silva L, Somaratne V, Senaratne S, Vipuladasa M, et al. (2016) Analysis of clinicial features with microscopy of cutaneous leishmaniasis suspected patients attending the dermatology clinic at general hospital Hambantota.
  • Dighal A, Mukhopadhyay D, Sengupta R, Moulik S, et al. (2020) Iron trafficking in patients with Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 14(2): e0007991.
  • Dworkin BM (1994) Selenium deficiency in HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Chemico-biological interactions, 91(2-3): 181-186.
  • Ferrari CKB (2019) Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Host Defense in Leishmaniasis Oxidative Stress in Microbial Diseases (pp. 245-256): Springer.
  • Gryglewski RJ, Palmer RMJ, Moncada S (1986) Superoxide anion is involved in the breakdown of endothelium-derived vascular relaxing factor. Nature 320: 454-456. https://doi.org/10.1038/320454a0
  • Hubbard AK, Rothlein R (2000) Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and cell signaling cascades. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 28(9): 1379-1386.
  • Hughes H (1988) Oxidative killing of intracellular parasites mediated by macrophages. Parasitology Today, 4(12): 340-347.
  • Jafari M, Shirbazou S, Sadraie SH, Kaka G, Norozi M (2015) The role of apoptosis in the cellular response of liver and spleen of BALB/c mice in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Iran J Med Sci, 40(2): 133-142.
  • Joung H (1995) Changes in copper and zinc metabolism after trauma. The Ohio State University.
  • Karami M, Doudi M, Setorki M (2013). Assessing epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of vector borne diseases, 50(1): 30.
  • Kocyigit A, Erel O, Gurel MS, Avci S, Aktepe N (1998) Alterations of serum selenium, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations and some related antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Biological trace element research, 65(3): 271-281.
  • Koçyiğit A, Erel Ö, Gürel MS, Seyrek A, Aktepe N, Gür S, Avcı S (1999) Decreasing selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 29(3): 291-296.
  • Kocyigit A, Gurel M, Ulukanligil M (2003) Erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Parasite, 10(3): 277-281.
  • Kocyigit A, Keles H, Selek S, Guzel S, Celik H, Erel O (2005) Increased DNA damage and oxidative stress in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 585(1-2): 71-78.
  • Lal CS, Kumar S, Ranjan A, Rabidas VN, Verma N, et al. (2013) Comparative analysis of serum zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium and iron level in acute and chronic patients of visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 27(2): 98-102.
  • Limón-Pacheco J, Gonsebatt ME (2009) The role of antioxidants and antioxidant-related enzymes in protective responses to environmentally induced oxidative stress. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 674(1): 137-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.09.015
  • Mittra B, Laranjeira-Silva MF, Miguel DC, de Menezes JPB, Andrews NW (2017) The iron-dependent mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SODA promotes Leishmania virulence. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292(29): 12324-12338.
  • Moustafa SR (2015) Association of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalse, and xanthine oxidase with incidence of bladder cancer. Cancer Research Journal, 3(2): 17-27.
  • Narayanan P, Goodwin EH, Lehnert B (1997) α particles initiate biological production of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide in human cells. Cancer research, 57(18): 3963-3971.
  • Oliveira FJA, Cecchini R (2000) Oxidative stress of liver in hamsters infected with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Journal of Parasitology, 86(5): 1067-1072.
  • Panemangalore M, Bebe FN (1996) Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats. Biological trace element research, 55(1-2): 111-126.
  • Phan IQ, Davies DR, Moretti NS, Shanmugam D, et al. (2015) Iron superoxide dismutases in eukaryotic pathogens: new insights from Apicomplexa and Trypanosoma structures. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications, 71(5): 615-621.
  • Pourfallah F, Javadian S, Zamani Z, Saghiri R, Sadeghi S, et al. (2009) Evaluation of serum levels of zinc, copper, iron, and zinc/copper ratio in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Iranian journal of arthropod-borne diseases, 3(2): 7.
  • Ribeiro-de-Jesus A, Almeida RPd, Lessa H, Bacellar O, Carvalho E (1998) Cytokine profile and pathology in human leishmaniasis. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, 31(1): 143-148.
  • Saeed AM, Khalil EA, Elhassan AM, Hashim FA, et al. (1998) Serum erythropoietin concentration in anaemia of visceral leishmaniasis (kala‐azar) before and during antimonial therapy. British J of haematology, 100(4): 720-4.
  • Saritas N, Uyanik F, Hamurcu Z, Çoksevim B (2011) Effects of acute twelve minute run test on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol, 5(9): 1218-1222.
  • Sen G, Mukhopadhyay S, Ray M, Biswas T (2008) Quercetin interferes with iron metabolism in Leishmania donovani and targets ribonucleotide reductase to exert leishmanicidal activity. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(5): 1066-1075.
  • Serarslan G, Yilmaz HR, Sogut S (2005) Serum antioxidant activities, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 30(2): 267-271.
  • Sharma S, Khanna G (2015) Textbook of Pathology and Genetics for Nurses: Elsevier India.
  • Taylor M, Kelly J (2010) Iron metabolism in trypanosomatids, and its crucial role in infection. Parasitology, 137(6): 899-917.
  • Terra R, Alves PJF, Lima AKC, Gomes SMR, et al. (2019) Immunomodulation from moderate exercise promotes control of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9: 115.
  • Wang R, Jiang Y (2018) The Impact of Intensive Utilization of Cultivated Land on Grain Yields: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4): 76-84
  • Weiss G (2002) Iron and immunity: a double‐edged sword. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 32: 70-78.
  • Werneck G, Batista M, Gomes J, Costa D, Costa C (2003) Prognostic factors for death from visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Brazil. Infection, 31(3): 174-177.
  • World Health Organization (2012) Status of endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis, worldwide, 2012. Available at: http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Leishmaniasis_CL_2013.png
  • World Health Organization (2015) Investing to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: third WHO report on neglected tropical diseases 2015 (Vol. 3).
  • Yanik M, Gurel M, Simsek Z, Kati M (2004) The psychological impact of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology: Clinical Dermatology, 29(5): 464-467.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.