Eugenia caryophyllus toothpaste reduces periodontal pathogens in saliva of Indonesian subjects

Abstract

Eugenol, an essential oil extracted from Eugenia caryophyllus, or clove, is used as an antiseptic and anesthetic agent in dentistry and is known for its antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of Eugenia caryophyllus in toothpaste against the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients’ saliva. Patients (n = 10, age 19 to 21) brushed their teeth using toothpaste containing Eugenia caryophyllus twice a day for 120 sec at a time, for a period of 2 weeks. Saliva was collected at baseline and after two weeks. The bacterial DNA in the saliva was extracted using a DNA extraction kit, and the numbers of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were calculated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers for each bacterium. The difference in the numbers of the periodontal pathogens at baseline and after two weeks of using the toothpaste was analyzed using a t-paired test. A significant reduction in the numbers of A. actynomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis was observed after two weeks (p < 0.05). Eugenia caryophyllus may be useful as an ingredient in toothpaste for periodontal disease prevention. Further studies are needed to prove its mechanism against oral pathogens.

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