Efficiency of bioecological features of soybean in increasing soil fertility and its productivity in the conditions of south-east Kazakhstan


In order to increase soil fertility and crop productivity in the conditions of South-east Kazakhstan, we have studied the effectiveness of resource-saving technology in soybean cultivation. The bioecological - nitrogen-fixing features of soybeans were also considered. The experimental study conducted in accordance with the scheme of the full factorial experiment in 2012-2017 on meadow-chestnut soils in South-East Kazakhstan. The article discusses the results of the application of the bioecological potential of culture in the ecologization of technological processes in the agricultural sector (agricultural economics), as a result of which the doses of nitrogen fertilizers are reduced (up to 50%), financial costs for growing crops are reduced, which makes it possible to solve pressing environmental problems. In the experiment, various soybean varieties were studied on the following backgrounds: without fertilizer (control); inoculation of seeds with soybean nitragin; with fertilizer N60Р180К90. The duration of the growing season, plant height, mass of air-dry matter, the number and mass of active nodules on the roots, elements of the structure of plant productivity and productivity were determined. It was proved that agro-inoculation of seeds with nitragin can significantly improve the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of soybeans (increases the number of nodules from 16.2 to 35.1 from 21.0-38.0 pcs / 1 plants.). As a result, soybean productivity increases to 34-36%. With such a crop, the ratio of soybeans to terrestrial and underground biomass is ½, which proves the large accumulation of organic roots and residues after harvesting (leaf tops) in the soil, which reduces the dose of nitrogen fertilizers used and contributes to an effective increase in soil fertility. In turn, the structure of the arable soil will stabilized at optimal soil density, which contributes to the normal growth and development of soybean culture. It proved that the minimum technology of tillage is the best agricultural practice providing preservation and improvement of qualitative and quantitative indicators of soil resource and productivity of soybeans.


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