Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii infection increases the production of Th1 cytokines that can cause fetal rejection. This study aims to determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the artery spiralis expressions of ICAM-1 in pregnant Rattus norvegicus infected by tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondii.
Material and Method: The rats were divided into four groups randomly. Determination of ICAM-1 expressions was performed on day-5 after HBOT and measured through Immunohistochemistry examination.
Result: There was no significant difference in ICAM-1 expression among all groups (A and B [p <0.626], A and C [p <0.450], A and D [p <0.770], B and C (p <0.792), B and D [p <0.812], C and D [p <0.600]). However, the results showed that HBOT could not reduce ICAM-1 expression (6.4, 5.73, 5.4, 6.03, the mean ICAM-1 expression in HBO2 treatment group was the highest).
Conclusion: This study concluded that HBOT could not reduce the expressions of ICAM-1 in artery spiralis with no significant difference among all groups.


  • Abou-Bacar A, Pfaff AW, Letscher-Bru V, Filisetti D, Rajapakse R, Antoni E, Villard O, Klein J-P and Candolfi E (2004) Role of gamma interferon and T cells in congenital Toxoplasma transmission. Parasite Immunology 26(8‐9): 315–318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00713.x
  • Aftab H, Miftahussurur M, Subsomwong P, Ahmed F, Khan A and Yamaoka Y (2016) Helicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Bangladesh: Emerging levofloxacin resistance. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 10.
  • Baba M, Batanova T, Kitoh K and Takashima Y (2017) Adhesion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite-infected vehicle leukocytes to capillary endothelial cells triggers timely parasite egression. Scientific reports 7(1): 5675. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05956-z
  • Buras JA, Stahl GL, Svoboda KKH and Reenstra WR (2000) Hyperbaric oxygen downregulates ICAM-1 expression induced by hypoxia and hypoglycemia: the role of NOS. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 278(2): C292–C302. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.2000.278.2.C292
  • Clark DA, Coulam CB, Daya S and Chaouat G (2001) Unexplained sporadic and recurrent miscarrage in the new millennium: a critical analysis of immune mechanisms and treatments. Human Reproduction Update 7(5): 501–511. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/7.5.501
  • Frölich MA (2013) Maternal & Fetal Physiology & Anesthesia. In: Clinical Anesthesiology 5th Edn. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Furtado JM, Bharadwaj AS, Ashander LM, Olivas A and Smith JR (2012) Migration of toxoplasma gondii-infected dendritic cells across human retinal vascular endothelium. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53(11): 6856–6862. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10384
  • Gigley JP, Bhadra R and Khan IA (2011) CD8 T Cells and Toxoplasma gondii: A New Paradigm. Journal of parasitology research 2011: 243796. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/243796
  • Hatibie MJ, Islam AA, Hatta M, Moenadjat Y, Susilo RH and Rendy L (2019) Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Second-Degree Burn Healing: An Experimental Study in Rabbits. Advances in Skin and Wound Care 32(3): 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000553110.78375.7b
  • Hooks JJ, Nagineni CN, Hooper LC, Hayashi K and Detrick B (2008) IFN-β Provides Immuno-Protection in the Retina by Inhibiting ICAM-1 and CXCL9 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. The Journal of Immunology 180(6): 3789 LP – 3796. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.6.3789
  • Hunn JP and Howard JC (2010) The Mouse Resistance Protein Irgm1 (LRG-47): A Regulator or an Effector of Pathogen Defense? PLOS Pathogens 6(7): e1001008. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001008
  • Ilyas S, Hutahaean S, Elimasni and Ar-Roisyi DK (2019) Effect of Turmeric Rhizome Extract (Curcuma longa L.) on Liver Histology of Preeclampsia Rat (Rattus norvegicus L.). Vol. 305. Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia: Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/305/1/012077
  • Irianti E, Ilyas S, Rosidah and Hutahaean S (2017) Hsp70 expression profile in preeclampsia model of pregnant rat (rattus norvegicus) after giving the evoo. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 180. Institute of Physics Publishing https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012161
  • Jones SR, Carpin KM, Woodward SM, Khiabani KT, Stephenson LL, Wang WZ and Zamboni WA (2010) Hyperbaric oxygen inhibits ischemia-reperfusion-induced neutrophil CD18 polarization by a nitric oxide mechanism. Plastic and reconstructive surgery 126(2): 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181df64a5
  • Lavrnja I, Parabucki A, Brkic P, Jovanovic T, Dacic S, Savic D, Pantic I, Stojiljkovic M and Pekovic S (2015) Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygenation Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Suppresses Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Model of Brain Injury. Ed. by Douvdevani, A.Mediators of Inflammation 2015: 498405. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/498405
  • Leiva A, Pardo F, Ramirez M, Farias M, Casanello P and Sobrevia L (2011) Fetoplacental Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction as an Early Phenomenon in the Programming of Human Adult Diseases in Subjects Born from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Obesity in Pregnancy. Experimental diabetes research 2011: 349286. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/349286
  • Miftahussurur M, Nusi IA, Graham DY and Yamaoka Y (2017) Helicobacter, hygiene, atopy, and asthma. Frontiers in microbiology 8: 1034.
  • Nowak M, Madej J and Dziegiel P (2007) Intensity of COX2 expression in cells of soft tissue fibrosacrcomas in dogs as related to grade of tumour malignancy. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 51: 275–279.
  • Nurdianto A, Aryati A, Suryokusumo M and Mufasirin M (2019) Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to IFNγ and TNFα expression in pregnant Rattus norvegicus infected with Tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondiio Title. Bali Medical Journal 8(1): 94–100. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v8i1.1316
  • Rosowski EE, Nguyen QP, Camejo A, Spooner E and Saeij JPJ (2014) Toxoplasma gondii Inhibits Gamma Interferon (IFN-γ)- and IFN-β-Induced Host Cell STAT1 Transcriptional Activity by Increasing the Association of STAT1 with DNA. Ed. by Adams, J. H.Infection and Immunity 82(2): 706 LP – 719. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01291-13
  • Schneider AG, Abi Abdallah DS, Butcher BA and Denkers EY (2013) Toxoplasma gondii triggers phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of dendritic cell STAT1 while simultaneously blocking IFNγ-induced STAT1 transcriptional activity. PloS one 8(3): e60215–e60215. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060215
  • Senegas A, Villard O, Neuville A, Marcellin L, Pfaff AW, Steinmetz T, Mousli M, Klein JP and Candolfi E (2009) Toxoplasma gondii-induced foetal resorption in mice involves interferon-γ-induced apoptosis and spiral artery dilation at the maternofoetal interface. International Journal for Parasitology 39(4): 481–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2008.08.009
  • Simanjuntak TP, Hatta M, Rauf S, Yusuf I and Tahir M (2018) Forkhead box P3 messenger-RNA expression after Curcuma longa extract intervention in early pregnant mice with toxoplasmosis. Research Journal of Immunology 11(1): 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3923/rji.2018.1.6
  • Ueno N, Harker KS, Clarke E V, McWhorter FY, Liu WF, Tenner AJ and Lodoen MB (2014) Real-time imaging of Toxoplasma-infected human monocytes under fluidic shear stress reveals rapid translocation of intracellular parasites across endothelial barriers. Cellular microbiology 16(4): 580–595. https://doi.org/10.1111/cmi.12239
  • Uzun G, Ayata A, Mutluoglu M, Yildiz S and Erşanlı D (2010) Can Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Turn off the Angiogenic Switch in Corneal Neovascularization? European Journal of General Medicine 7: 118–119. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/82836
  • Wibowo N, Mose JC, Karkata MK, Purwaka BT, Kristanto H, Chalid MT, Yusrawati, Sitepu M, Kaeng JJ, Bernolian N, Pramusinto D and Irwinda R (2015) The status of probiotics supplementation during pregnancy. Medical Journal of Indonesia 24(2): 120–130. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.v24i2.1223
  • Widiyanti P (2011) Basic Mechanism of Hyperbaric Oxygen in Infectious Disease. International Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease 2(1): 49–54.
  • Xu X, Zhao M, Liu X, Jiang Y, Zhang H, Zhai X, Zhang L and Hu X (2013) Toxoplasma gondii infection regulates the balance of activating and inhibitory receptors on decidual natural killer cells. PloS one 8(2): e55432–e55432. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055432
  • Yuliawati I and Nasronudin (2015) Pathogenesis, Diagnostic and Management of Toxoplasmosis. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease 5(4): 100–106.
  • Zhang Y, Yang Y, Tang H, Sun W, Xiong X, Smerin D and Liu J (2014) Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Ameliorates Local Brain Metabolism, Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response in a Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Model in Rabbits. Neurochemical Research 39(5): 950–960. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-014-1292-4


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.