Effect of herbicide (Pyroxsulam) on Nickle, Cadmium, Lead, and total Flavonoid levels of two Iraqi Wheat species

Abstract

Background: Since 2008, Pyroxsulam was registered by Dow Agro Sciences as efficient broad-spectrum herbicide for wheat control. Wheat is an important plant involved in the daily meal of human and it is a rich source for benefit contents. Aim: The present project aimed to study the effect of Pyroxsulam herbicide on the levels of some parameters in Iraqi wheat. Materials and Methods: We investigated the concentration of three metals (Ni, Cd, and Pb) and flavonoid in seeds of wheat plants collected from two Iraqi cultivates (Iba 99 and Abu Ghraib 3). Halve of the planted wheat was sprayed with Pyroxsulam herbicide (S group) while the other group was considered as a control group (C group). Results: The results showed that the levels of Ni (an essential cofactor of eight enzymes) and the antioxidant parameter (total flavonoids) were negatively affected as a result of treatment with Pyroxsulam. This effect was clearly apparent from the significant drop in most data of these elements, the same result was indicated for the (Cd, and Pb) concentrations which they passed to the soil. By comparison, Iba 99 cultivate is more crop with using the herbicide than Abu Ghraib 3 cultivate. Conclusion: According to the above results, wheat products after treatment with Pyroxsulam would have less in some antioxidant related contents and it would be useful to design an alternative dose or solution of this herbicide to get healthy products of wheat with high yield.

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