Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ahmadian S, Enferadi ST, Alemzadeh A, Razi H, Kazemeini SA. Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2), 1549-1558.

APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Ahmadian et al., 2019)
Reference: Ahmadian, S., Enferadi, S. T., Alemzadeh, A., Razi, H., & Kazemeini, S. A. (2019). Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), 1549-1558.

Chicago
In-text citation: (Ahmadian et al., 2019)
Reference: Ahmadian, Soolmaz, Sttar Tahmasbi Enferadi, Abbas Alemzadeh, Hooman Razi, and Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini. "Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 2019 13 no. 2 (2019): 1549-1558.

Harvard
In-text citation: (Ahmadian et al., 2019)
Reference: Ahmadian, S., Enferadi, S. T., Alemzadeh, A., Razi, H., and Kazemeini, S. A. (2019). Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 13(2), pp. 1549-1558.

MLA
In-text citation: (Ahmadian et al., 2019)
Reference: Ahmadian, Soolmaz et al. "Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits". Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1549-1558.

Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Ahmadian S, Enferadi ST, Alemzadeh A, Razi H, Kazemeini SA. Effect of continents on wild sunflower in terms of oil content, fatty acid compositions and seed traits. Eurasia J Biosci. 2019;13(2):1549-58.

Abstract

Sunflower wild populations contain useful genes that can be used to the breeding of crop cultivars. In the present study, the genetic variation of 107 wild accessions of Helianthus annuus L. species was studied for seed traits (seed length, seed diameter and 1000-grain weight), seed oil content and fatty acid composition based on continents. Gas chromatography was used to identify the fatty acid composition of the oil. The distribution of populations in continents are as follows: The Europe continent with 65 populations and South America with 7 populations had the highest and lowest populations, respectively. On the other hand, the continents of Asia, Africa and North America had 14, 9 and 12 populations, respectively. The results showed that the highest amount of seed oil belonged Asia and north America, respectively. The results of mean comparison among the continents in terms of PALM showed that the collected populations from South America had the highest amount of this fatty acid. On the other hand, the populations collected from North America and Asia had the lowest amount of PALM, respectively. The study of the continents in terms of OLE indicated that the populations collected from the African continent had the highest levels of this fatty acid, followed by Europe continent and South America in the next rank. As study showed, the collected populations of the continents of Asia and North America accounted for the largest amounts of LIN, while the Africa continent had the lowest amount of LIN. The results of correlation analysis between seed traits and oil percentages using Pearson coefficient indicated that there was not a significant correlation between the seed characteristics (seed length, seed diameter and 1000-grain weight) with oil percentage. While, there was a positive and significant correlation between seed traits, which showed the highest correlation between seed length and seed diameter.  As analysis showed, there were no significant differences among the continents in terms of seed length and seed diameter. On the other hand, the continents with 1000- seed weight had a significant difference at the probability level of 5%. Mean Comparison of different continents in terms of 1000-seed weight trait showed that the populations in Asia continent had an average of 1.70 g which was the highest in comparison with other continents. On the other hand, the South American populations with 0.78 grams had the least amount of 1000- seed weight The findings of this study showed that there is a significant genetic variation among the studied populations based on continents, which can be used in crossings programs and to maximizing the heterosis.

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