Abstract

Lichen or commonly termed as is a symbiotic association organism between algae and fungus in nature. It is a non vascular plants. Algae comes from the Cyanobacteria while the fungus derived from Ascomycetes. Fungus needs carbon as food sources and the algae provides from photosynthetic process. Lichen is distributed in terrestrial from tropical to polar habitats. Lichen varies in terms of body size and length. Many investigation had been done to test the lichen as bio indicators. This research aimed to determine the diversity and abundance of lichen Surakarta and Jogjakarta, two middle cities in central Java, Indonesia. The research conducted in September 2018 to May 2019. It was using exploration method, by purposive sampling technique to determine the research sites and sampling locations. A total of 303 lichen individuals were taken from as many as 180 different types of host trees was carried out in three different regions. The research location as parameters was using three different location of lichen habitat, they were in the city, countryside and forest in Surakarta and Jogjakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. The city was assumed had high air pollution than countryside, while the forest was the lowest air pollution. As many as 28 species of lichen were obtained from the three locations. Parmeliaceae dominated the lichen population. The highest Shannon Winner diversity index of lichen that used was 0.09 in Surakarta than Jogjakarta was 2.7. The highest abundance value of lichen species was 0.73 in Jogjakarta, while Surakarta was 0.68. The abundance values of lichen was representation of lichen Parmeliaceae in Jogjakarta was more abundance than Surakarta.

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