Abstract

Background and aim: the aim of present systematic review and meta-analysis was determine the association between a broader array of pregnancy complications and the future risk of cardiovascular.
Method: From the electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI have been used to perform a systematic literature between 2015 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X8) has been utilized for managing the electronic titles. Searches were performed with mesh terms. Odds ratio between two groups with 95% confidence interval (CI), random effect model and restricted maximum-likelihood method were calculated. Random effects were used to deal with potential heterogeneity and I2 showed heterogeneity. The Meta analysis and forest plots have been evaluated with the use of a software program Stata V16.
Result: A total of 486 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were found during the electronic and manual search. Finally, a total of 21 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria required for this systematic review. Pooled results of nine studies examining gestational hypertension suggest a 40% (95% ICI, -0.09, and 0.90) higher risk of subsequent CVD in women with gestational hypertension compared to women without. The odds ratio was (OR, 0.40 95% CI -0.09, 0.90. P= 0.11), and heterogeneity found (I2 = 82.35%)
Conclusion: Women with a history of gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, and stillbirth are at higher risk for CVD than other women.

References

  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ task force on hypertension in pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology, 122(5), 1122.
  • Auger, N., Fraser, W. D., Schnitzer, M., Leduc, L., Healy-Profitós, J., & Paradis, G. (2017). Recurrent pre-eclampsia and subsequent cardiovascular risk. Heart, 103(3), 235-243.
  • Auger, N., Potter, B. J., Bilodeau-Bertrand, M., & Paradis, G. (2018). Long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in women who have had infants with heart defects. Circulation, 137(22), 2321-2331.
  • Auger, N., Potter, B. J., He, S., Healy-Profitós, J., Schnitzer, M. E., & Paradis, G. (2020). Maternal Cardiovascular Disease 3 Decades After Preterm Birth: Longitudinal Cohort Study of Pregnancy Vascular Disorders. Hypertension, 75(3), 788-795.
  • Behrens, I., Basit, S., Lykke, J. A., Ranthe, M. F., Wohlfahrt, J., Bundgaard, H.,... & Boyd, H. A. (2016). Association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and later risk of cardiomyopathy. Jama, 315(10), 1026-1033.
  • Brett, S. E., Jiang, B. Y., Turner, C., Ritter, J. M., & Chowienczyk, P. J. (2006). Elevation of plasma homocysteine by methionine loading increases the diastolic blood pressure response to exercise. Journal of hypertension, 24(10), 1985-1989.
  • Brown, H. L., Warner, J. J., Gianos, E., Gulati, M., Hill, A. J., Hollier, L. M.,... & Wenger, N. K. (2018). Promoting risk identification and reduction of cardiovascular disease in women through collaboration with obstetricians and gynecologists: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Circulation, 137(24), e843-e852.
  • Brown, M. C., Best, K. E., Pearce, M. S., Waugh, J., Robson, S. C., & Bell, R. (2013). Cardiovascular disease risk in women with pre-eclampsia: systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of epidemiology, 28(1), 1-19.
  • Bulgakov, A. V., Babieva, N. S., Levanova, E. A., Gridyaeva, L. N., Erofeeva, M. A., Sokolovskaya, I. E., & Davidyan, L. Y. (2018). Specific features of psycho-emotional states of working women during pregnancy. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 15(6), em86.
  • Cain, M. A., Salemi, J. L., Tanner, J. P., Kirby, R. S., Salihu, H. M., & Louis, J. M. (2016). Pregnancy as a window to future health: maternal placental syndromes and short-term cardiovascular outcomes. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 215(4), 484-e1.
  • Canoy, D., Cairns, B. J., Balkwill, A., Wright, F. L., Khalil, A., Beral, V.,... & Million Women Study Collaborators. (2016). Hypertension in pregnancy and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: A prospective study in a large UK cohort. International journal of cardiology, 222, 1012-1018.
  • Cheng, C. A., Lee, J. T., Lin, H. C., Lin, H. C., Chung, C. H., Lin, F. H.,... & Chiu, H. W. (2017). Pregnancy increases stroke risk up to 1 year postpartum and reduces long-term risk. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 110(6), 355-360.
  • Cirillo, P. M., & Cohn, B. A. (2015). Pregnancy complications and cardiovascular disease death: 50-year follow-up of the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort. Circulation, 132(13), 1234-1242.
  • Goueslard, K., Cottenet, J., Mariet, A. S., Giroud, M., Cottin, Y., Petit, J. M., & Quantin, C. (2016). Early cardiovascular events in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular diabetology, 15(1), 15.
  • Grandi, S. M., Filion, K. B., Yoon, S., Ayele, H. T., Doyle, C. M., Hutcheon, J. A.,... & Platt, R. W. (2019). Cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in women with a history of pregnancy complications: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation, 139(8), 1069-1079.
  • Grandi, S. M., Filion, K. B., Yoon, S., Ayele, H. T., Doyle, C. M., Hutcheon, J. A.,... & Platt, R. W. (2019). Cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in women with a history of pregnancy complications: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation, 139(8), 1069-1079.
  • Grandi, S. M., Filion, K. B., Yoon, S., Ayele, H. T., Doyle, C. M., Hutcheon, J. A.,... & Platt, R. W. (2019). Cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in women with a history of pregnancy complications: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation, 139(8), 1069-1079.
  • Grandi, S. M., Vallée‐Pouliot, K., Reynier, P., Eberg, M., Platt, R. W., Arel, R.,... & Filion, K. B. (2017). Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 31(5), 412-421.
  • Heida, K. Y., Franx, A., Van Rijn, B. B., Eijkemans, M. J., Boer, J. M., Verschuren, M. W.,... & Van Der Schouw, Y. T. (2015). Earlier age of onset of chronic hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus after a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. Hypertension, 66(6), 1116-1122.
  • Heida, K. Y., Velthuis, B. K., Oudijk, M. A., Reitsma, J. B., Bots, M. L., Franx, A.,... & Dutch Guideline Development Group on Cardiovascular Risk Management after Reproductive Disorders. (2016). Cardiovascular disease risk in women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of preventive cardiology, 23(3), 253-263.
  • Hopmans, T. E., Van Houten, C., Kasius, A., Kouznetsova, O. I., Nguyen, L. A., Rooijmans, S. V.,... & Koster, M. P. (2015). Increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease after gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.
  • Hvidtjørn, D., Wu, C., Schendel, D. T. P. E. B., Thorlund Parner, E., & Brink Henriksen, T. (2016). Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss: a population‐based follow‐up study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 123(3), 393-398.
  • Kaul, P., Savu, A., Nerenberg, K. A., Donovan, L. E., Chik, C. L., Ryan, E. A., & Johnson, J. A. (2015). Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus and high maternal weight on the development of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: a population‐level analysis. Diabetic Medicine, 32(2), 164-173.
  • Kessous, R., Shoham-Vardi, I., Pariente, G., Holcberg, G., & Sheiner, E. (2013). An association between preterm delivery and long-term maternal cardiovascular morbidity. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 209(4), 368-e1.
  • Kessous, R., Shoham-Vardi, I., Pariente, G., Sergienko, R., & Sheiner, E. (2015). Long-term maternal atherosclerotic morbidity in women with pre-eclampsia. Heart, 101(6), 442-446.
  • Kessous, R., Shoham-Vardi, I., Pariente, G., Sherf, M., & Sheiner, E. (2013). An association between gestational diabetes mellitus and long-term maternal cardiovascular morbidity. Heart, 99(15), 1118-1121.
  • Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P.,... & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 62(10), e1-e34.
  • Lin, L. T., Tsui, K. H., Cheng, J. T., Cheng, J. S., Huang, W. C., Liou, W. S., & Tang, P. L. (2016). Increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. Medicine, 95(20).
  • Løkke, A., Hilberg, O., Tønnesen, P., Ibsen, R., Kjellberg, J., & Jennum, P. (2014). Direct and indirect economic and health consequences of COPD in Denmark: a national register-based study: 1998–2010. BMJ open, 4(1).
  • McDonald, E. G., Dayan, N., Pelletier, R., Eisenberg, M. J., & Pilote, L. (2016). Premature cardiovascular disease following a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. International Journal of Cardiology, 219, 9-13.
  • Meah, V. L., Cockcroft, J. R., Backx, K., Shave, R., & Stöhr, E. J. (2016). Cardiac output and related haemodynamics during pregnancy: a series of meta-analyses. Heart, 102(7), 518-526.
  • Minissian, M. B., Kilpatrick, S., Eastwood, J. A., Robbins, W. A., Accortt, E. E., Wei, J.,... & Merz, C. N. B. (2018). Association of spontaneous preterm delivery and future maternal cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 137(8), 865-871.
  • Mosca, L., Benjamin, E. J., Berra, K., Bezanson, J. L., Dolor, R. J., Lloyd-Jones, D. M.,... & Zhao, D. (2011). Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 57(12), 1404-1423.
  • Nelander, M., Cnattingius, S., Åkerud, H., Wikström, J., Pedersen, N. L., & Wikström, A. K. (2016). Pregnancy hypertensive disease and risk of dementia and cardiovascular disease in women aged 65 years or older: a cohort study. BMJ open, 6(1).
  • Ngo, A. D., Chen, J. S., Figtree, G., Morris, J. M., & Roberts, C. L. (2015). Preterm birth and future risk of maternal cardiovascular disease–is the association independent of smoking during pregnancy?. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 15(1), 144.
  • Ngo, A. D., Roberts, C. L., Chen, J. S., & Figtree, G. (2016). Interaction of maternal smoking and preterm birth on future risk of maternal cardiovascular disease: A population-based record linkage study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23(6), 613-620.
  • Peters, S. A., Yang, L., Guo, Y., Chen, Y., Bian, Z., Tian, X.,... & Chen, J. (2017). Pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese women: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank. BMC medicine, 15(1), 148.
  • Riise, H. K. R., Sulo, G., Tell, G. S., Igland, J., Nygård, O., Vollset, S. E.,... & Daltveit, A. K. (2017). Incident coronary heart disease after preeclampsia: role of reduced fetal growth, preterm delivery, and parity. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(3), e004158.
  • Robbins, C. L., Hutchings, Y., Dietz, P. M., Kuklina, E. V., & Callaghan, W. M. (2014). History of preterm birth and subsequent cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 210(4), 285-297.
  • Soh, M. C., Dib, F., Nelson-Piercy, C., Westgren, M., McCowan, L., & Pasupathy, D. (2016). Maternal-placental syndrome and future risk of accelerated cardiovascular events in Parous Swedish women with systemic lupus erythematosus—a population-based retrospective cohort study with time-to-event analysis. Rheumatology, 55(7), 1235-1242.
  • Soh, M. C., Nelson‐Piercy, C., Dib, F., Westgren, M., McCowan, L., & Pasupathy, D. (2015). Brief Report: Association between pregnancy outcomes and death from cardiovascular causes in parous women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a study using Swedish population registries. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 67(9), 2376-2382.
  • Tanz, L. J., Stuart, J. J., Williams, P. L., Rimm, E. B., Missmer, S. A., Rexrode, K. M.,... & Rich-Edwards, J. W. (2017). Preterm delivery and maternal cardiovascular disease in young and middle-aged adult women. Circulation, 135(6), 578-589.
  • Tooher, J., Thornton, C., Makris, A., Ogle, R., Korda, A., & Hennessy, A. (2017). All hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Hypertension, 70(4), 798-803.
  • Umesawa, M., & Kobashi, G. (2017). Epidemiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, predictors and prognosis. Hypertension Research, 40(3), 213-220.
  • Yamada, K., Iso, H., Cui, R., & Tamakoshi, A. (2017). Recurrent pregnancy loss and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese women: a population-based, prospective cohort study. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 26(5), 1047-1054.

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.