Determination of mycotoxins in the seeds of sunflower, soybean and corn by enzyme immunoassay

Abstract

The spread of secondary metabolites of molds in plant products that have adverse effects on humans and animals is an urgent and priority problem from the point of view of food safety. HPLC methods are currently arbitrage in determining mycotoxins and primary metabolites of molds. However, the HPLC method requires a rather large consumption of expensive eluents and solvents, which not only complicates the process, but also significantly increases the cost of analysis. The implementation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is based on a highly specific reaction “antigen-antibody”, the detection of which occurs due to a change in the color of the corresponding substrate with the introduction of the enzymatic component. To study the contamination of mycotoxins of various varieties of crops (soybean, sunflower, corn) cultivated in the Central Сhernozemregion region of Russia. The study was conducted by a direct competitive enzyme immunoassay using the Multiskan FC microbiological analyzer. As standards used ready-made sets “TESTSIP”. As a result of analysis, detectable mycotoxins were found in 9 out of 10 samples of sunflower seed varieties. Exceeding the permissible norm of aflatoxin B1 was recorded in the sample of sunflower seeds of the Mechta variety by 28%. As a result of the analysis, detectable mycotoxins were found in 5 of 6 samples of soybean seeds. The threshold concentration of the acceptable norm of aflatoxin B1 is recorded in samples of soybean varieties Zara and Slavia. As a result of the analysis, detectable mycotoxins were found in all 6 samples of corn seeds. The creation of appropriate conditions for production and storage, as well as the improvement of control methods for agricultural raw materials and products produced from it, is an essential part of the system for ensuring safety and reducing the risk of food mycotoxicosis.

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