Correlation between interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 levels with systemic lupus erythematosus and the effect of the age and gender


Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid in early diagnosis, monitoring patients with mild disease, recognizing warning signs that require referral to a rheumatologist, and helping to monitor disease activity and treatment in patients with moderate to severe disease.
Materials & Methods: The study included 70 samples included: 50 outpatients who attended to Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital in Babylon Governorate who are suffering from dermatitis during the period (Feb.2019 to Aug. 2019). Their ages are ranging between (1-45) years old and from both genders. Depending on the age, the patients were divided into three groups included 1-15 years old, 16-30 years old and 31-45 years old. The negative control group included 20 healthy persons in the same age groups. A questionnaire was done to obtain the required information from the patient for the purpose of statistical analyzes.
Results: A significant difference in the level of IL-10 & IL-12 were detected in patient groups in comparison with the control group. The results also showed that O+ blood group is the most frequent (30%) among patient groups. Furthermore, there is a genetic tendency in the frequency of onset of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and the family history: 20%, 40%,and 30%of patients with SLE have family history of this disease in both parents, in mother only, in father only, respectively. Results also showed that the frequency of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus infection was effected by the gender (female is more vulnerable) and the age (31-45 years old has highest frequency).


  • Abbas, Ebithal chaid; Al-Saady, Amal talib, Al-Khafaji, Ziton Abdulrida Ighewish; Kadhum,Mayada Jawad (2018)Association of IL-17 with hepatitis A virus Childhood infection patients less than 10 years old. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 10(5), 2018, 1165-1166.
  • Abdou, N. I., Rider, V., Greenwell, C., Li, X., & Kimler, B. F. (2008). Fulvestrant (Faslodex), an estrogen selective receptor downregulator, in therapy of women with systemic lupus erythematosus. clinical, serologic, bone density, and T cell activation marker studies: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of rheumatology, 35(5), 797-797.‏
  • Achour, A., Mankaï, A., Thabet, Y., Sakly, W., Braham, F., Kechrid, C., ... & Ghedira, I. (2012). Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly. Rheumatology international, 32(5), 1225-1229.‏
  • Achour, A., Mankaï, A., Thabet, Y., Sakly, W., Braham, F., Kechrid, C., ... & Ghedira, I. (2012). Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly. Rheumatology international, 32(5), 1225-1229.‏
  • Bertoli, A. M., Alarcón, G. S., Calvo‐Alén, J., Fernández, M., Vilá, L. M., & Reveille, J. D. (2006). Systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic US cohort: Clinical features, course, and outcome in patients with late‐onset disease. Arthritis & Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology, 54(5), 1580-1587.‏
  • Bornhäuser, M., Ordemann, R., Paaz, U., Schuler, U., Kömpf, J., Hölig, K., & Ehninger, G. (1997). Rapid engraftment after allogeneic ABO-incompatible peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation complicated by severe hemolysis. Bone marrow transplantation, 19(3), 295.‏
  • Chun, H. Y., Chung, J. W., Kim, H. A., Yun, J. M., Jeon, J. Y., Ye, Y. M., ... & Suh, C. H. (2007). Cytokine IL-6 and IL-10 as biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of clinical immunology, 27(5), 461-466.
  • Feng, X., Wu, H., Grossman, J. M., Hanvivadhanakul, P., FitzGerald, J. D., Park, G. S., & Furst, D. E. (2006). Association of increased interferon‐inducible gene expression with disease activity and lupus nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 54(9), 2951-2962.‏
  • Ghedira, I., Sakly, W., & Jeddi, M. (2002). Clinical and serological characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus: 128 cases. Pathologie-biologie, 50(1), 18-24.‏
  • Harigai, M., Kawamoto, M., Hara, M., Kubota, T., Kamatani, N., & Miyasaka, N. (2008). Excessive production of IFN-γ in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its contribution to induction of B lymphocyte stimulator/B cell-activating factor/TNF ligand superfamily-13B. The Journal of Immunology, 181(3), 2211-2219.‏
  • Johanson, S.G.; Bicber,T.; Dahl, R.; Fridman, P.S.; Lanier, B. Q & Lockey,R. F. (2000). Revised nomenclature for allergy for globul use: Report of the Nemeclature Review committee of the World Allergy Organization; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 113:832-6.
  • Kadhum, Eman Wahab(2019)Estimation of IgE level and Rh factor in patients with atopic dermatitis. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 10(2), 1566-1570. DOI: https://doi. org/10. 26452/ijrps.v10i2.1358.
  • Kuo, C. F., Grainge, M. J., Valdes, A. M., See, L. C., Luo, S. F., Yu, K. H.,... & Doherty, M. (2015). Familial aggregation of systemic lupus erythematosus and coaggregation of autoimmune diseases in affected families. JAMA internal medicine, 175(9), 1518-1526.‏
  • Peng, H., Wang, W., Zhou, M., Li, R., Pan, H. F., & Ye, D. Q. (2013). Role of interleukin-10 and interleukin-10 receptor in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical rheumatology, 32(9), 1255-1266.‏
  • Rana, A., Minz, R. W., Aggarwal, R., Anand, S., Pasricha, N., & Singh, S. (2012). Gene expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ), serum profiles of IL-17 and IL-23 in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus, 21(10), 1105-1112.‏
  • Rönnelid, J., Tejde, A., Mathsson, L., Nilsson-Ekdahl, K., & Nilsson, B. (2003). Immune complexes from SLE sera induce IL10 production from normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells by an FcγRII dependent mechanism: implications for a possible vicious cycle maintaining B cell hyperactivity in SLE. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 62(1), 37-42.‏
  • Somers, E. C., Antonsen, S., Pedersen, L., & Sørensen, H. T. (2013). Parental history of lupus and rheumatoid arthritis and risk in offspring in a nationwide cohort study: does sex matter?. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 72(4), 525-529.‏
  • Soto, M. E., Vallejo, M., Guillen, F., Simon, J. A., Arena, E., & Reyes, P. A. (2004). Gender impact in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 22(6), 713-21.
  • Sutton, H.E. (2002). Human genetics, 6th ed., HBJ, Publishers, Academic
  • Tucci, M., Lombardi, L., Richards, H. B., Dammacco, F., & Silvestris, F. (2008). Overexpression of interleukin‐12 and T helper 1 predominance in lupus nephritis. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 154(2), 247-254.‏
  • Ulff-Møller, C. J., Simonsen, J., Kyvik, K. O., Jacobsen, S., & Frisch, M. (2017). Family history of systemic lupus erythematosus and risk of autoimmune disease: Nationwide Cohort Study in Denmark 1977–2013. Rheumatology, 56(6), 957-964.‏
  • VU LAM, N. C., Ghetu, M. V., & Bieniek, M. L. (2016). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Primary Care Approach to Diagnosis and Management. American family physician, 94(4).‏
  • Ye, Q. L., Guoliu, R. N., Qin, H., Shen, Y. Y., Wang, B., & Zhai, Z. M. (2017). Elevated plasma levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in systemic lupus erythematosus. Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 10(3), 3286-3291.‏
  • Zelalem, S., Alemayehu, M., & Yeshiwas, T. (2018). Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 5(4), 54-67.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.