The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare facemask therapy with either removable or fixed appliances for the treatment of skeletal class III patients in mixed dentition. Lateral cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, maxillary retrognathism were compared to evaluate skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes pre- and post-treatment of facemask therapy with either removable or fixed appliances (n=32). A total of 31 angular and linear variables were used to analyze the cephalograms. All the measurements were done using Dolphin software Version 10.5. The paired T-test was performed to compare the cephalometric measurements before and after treatment in each treatment group. The Independent t-test was used to compare the changes in cephalometric measurements between two groups. P-value <0.5 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The SNA angle was increased significantly in both treatment groups (P value<0.05). The upper incisors were significantly proclined in both groups (P value<0.05) with a greater inclination in the fixed group. Mesial migration of maxillary first molar was greater in the removable group compared to the fixed group (P value<0.05)..Regarding mandibular skeletal and dental measurements, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The results of this study showed a significant orthopedic effect on the maxilla using facemask therapy with either fixed or removable appliances. The fixed appliance anchorage demonstrated better outcomes in terms of minimizing the loss of anchorage and greater maxillary protraction in the early mixed dentition which was mostly achieved by dentoalveolar movements rather than maxillary growth.


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