Clinical and Molecular Investigation of Mycoplasma spp. infection in camel (Camelus dromedaries) in the Central Eastern areas of Iraq
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Eurasian Journal of Biosciences, 2020 - Volume 14 Issue 1, pp. 1059-1064
  • Published Online: 06 May 2020
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)


Camels are considered to be an important economy animal, also one of Arabian history identity. The study aimed to detection of Mycoplasma ssp. in a diseased camels herds in two provinces Waset and Maysan in eastern areas near the borders of Iran Republic. Study extend from September – December 2019. 100 camels included in this study suffered from clinical signs represented by respiratory system infection symptoms includes fever, anorexia, emaciation, thirsty, snoring, load sound during inspiration, recumbence and an able to stand again, lameness, arthritis and enlargement of joints, mortality rate 5%. 25 camel consider as a control group (they appear healthy when clinically exanimated)..Investigation of suspected causes of disease criminated mycoplasma spp. By PCR technique, blood samples collected, DNA extracted by using (Favorgen Biotech Corp.) kit. Three primers used for detection mycoplasma ssp first was universal primer for detection mycoplasmas second was M. arginine and last primer for detected M. mycoides ssp. Mycoides respectively. Results revealed that 94 samples were positive to universal primer while 23 sample were positive to Mycoplasma mycoides ssp mycoides and 77 were negative. Mycoplasma arginine did not detected in all samples. 3 positive sample for Mycoplasma universal primer in control group. Also results showed there were many other Mycoplasma ssp. according to the electrophoresis results of universal primer of Mycoplasma ssp.


  • Abbas B, Agab H (2002) Review of camel brucellosis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 55: 47–56.
  • Abebe Allen WR, Higgins AJ, Maybew IG, Snow DH, Wade JFR, W Publications, Newmarket, UK (1992) pp. 59–64.
  • Ayling RD, Bashiruddin JB, Nicholas RA (2004) Mycoplasma species and related organisms isolated from ruminant in Britain between 1990 and 2000. Vet Rec.; 155: 413-416.
  • Bascuñana CR, Matisson JG, Bölske G, Johansson KE (1994) Characterization of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma sp. strain F38 and development of an identification system based on PCR. J Bacteriol, 176: 2577–2586.
  • Chen Z, Liu Q, Liu JQ, Xu BL, Lv S, Xia S, Zhou XN (2014) Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China. Parasit Vectors.; 7: 237.
  • Delgado MO, Timenetsky J (2001) Immunoblot profiles of sera from laboratory rats naturally infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis and technicians exposed to infected animal facilities. Braz J Microbiol. 32(4): 301‒304.
  • Elfaki MG, Abbas B, Mahmoud OM, Kleven SH (2002) Isolation and characterization of Mycoplasma arginini from camels (Camelus dromedarius). Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 25: 49–57.
  • Elfaki MG, Abbas B, Mahmoud OM, Kleven SH (2004) Isolation and characterization of Mycoplasma arginini from camels (Camelus dromedarius). Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 25: 49–57.
  • Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Sanaz Jafari, Mohsen Ghane, Saeed Nazifi and Ahmadreza Sanati (2018) Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in camel (Camelus dromedarius).com. Cli. Path. Jou, 27(3): 789–794.
  • Higgins A (1986) The Camel in Health and Disease. Bailliere Tindall, London, UK; pp. 16.
  • Kareem SD, Olusegun AK, Samuel OO (2017) The Effect of Co2 Emission and Economic Growth on Energy Consumption in Sub Sahara Africa. International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research, 6(1): 27-35.
  • Kazemiha VM, Shokrgozar MA, Arabestani MR, Moghadam MS, Azari S, Maleki S, Amanzadeh A, Tehrani MJ, Shokri F (n.d.) PCR-based detection and eradication of mycoplasmal infection from various mammalian cell lines: A local experience. Cytotechnology: 117-124.
  • Kissi B, Juhasz S, Stipkovits L (1985) Effect of Mycoplasma contamination of bull semen on fertilization. Acta Vet Hung., 33(1‒2): 107‒117.
  • McAuliffe L, Brando K, Roger DA, et al. (2004) Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolatd from the United Kingdom show two genetically distinct cluster. J Clin Microbiol. 42(10): 4556‒4565.
  • Paling RW, Waghela S, Macowan KJ, Heath BR (1988) The occurrence of infectious diseases in mixed farming of domesticated and wild herbivores in Kenya. Wildlife Diseases, 24(2): 308–316.
  • Refai M (2002) Bacterial and mycotic diseases of camels in Egypt. In: Proceedings of the 1stInternational Camel Conference. In: Proceedings of the First International Camel Conference, held at Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February.
  • Schwartz HJ, Dioli M (2012) The one humped camel in eastern Africa. A pictorial guide to disease, health care and management. Weikersheim, Germany, Verlag Josef Margaft Publishers: 282.
  • Shoieb SM, Sayed-Ahmed M (2016).Clinical and clinicopathological findings of arthritic camel calf associated with Mycoplasma infection(Camelus dromedarius). J Dairy Vet Anim Res.; 3(1): 26-30.
  • Sillo P, Pinter D, Ostorhazi E, Mazan M, Wikonkal N, et al. (2012) Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with Mycoplasma arginini infection. J Clin Microbiol., 50: 1113-1117.
  • Wernery U, Kaaden OR (2002) Infectious Diseases of Camelids. 2nd Edition. Blackwell WissenschaftsVerlag, Berlin, Germany. pp. 110.
  • World Organization for Animal Health (2008). - Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris. Retrieved from


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.